Introduction to Internet Mobility Protocols in .NET

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almost always involve a layer-2 handover first. In other words, each handover is the result of the mobile node s change of point of attachment from one AP to another. Depending on whether a change of APs leads to a change of subnets, the layer-2 handover may also lead to a layer-3 handover that requires Mobile IP signaling. However, since within each node the information flows up the stack, Mobile IP processing software will only find out about the need for handover, if it receives an indication that a layer-2 handover is performed or is about to be performed. Hence the performance of Mobile IP handovers (latency required for completion of handover) depends on the timing of the information received about layer-2 handovers. This information is usually referred to as layer-2 trigger, since it is usually information about some sort of event that has happened at layer 2, such as the disconnection of the mobile node from its old AP, or the reception of an acceptable signal quality from a new AP by the MN. If layer-2 triggers are presented to the network layer entities in a timely manner, these entities may be able to start Mobile IP processing early on without having to wait for the layer-2 handovers to be completed. For instance, if the mobile node could start acquiring a new CoA for its new point of attachment as soon as it has received an indication that the link with its old AP is going down, the mobile node could do some of its layer-2 and layer-3 handover processing in parallel and hence save some time. These ideas provided the motivation behind the handover optimization processes that were called low-latency handovers (for Mobile IPv4 [LOWMIP4DR]) and fast Mobile IP (for Mobile IPv6 [FMIP6DR]).
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5.2.2.2 Candidate Router Discovery Issues Mobile IP registration signaling provides a mechanism for the mobile node to inform its mobility agents about its new subnet and IP address, so that the traffic for the MN can be properly routed. However, Mobile IP does not provide any guidance on how the MN determines which new subnet it needs to go to. With the emergence of many contender access technologies, the MN may be presented with a situation where the MN is in a coverage area of several access network operators (multi-domain scenario) or multiple points of attachment from the same operator (single domain scenario). The MN must choose from a pool of networks, each represented by an edge device such as an access router. The problem of making a choice between all those socalled candidate access routers (CAR) to select a target AR (TAR) is referred to as access router discovery and selection and may be affected by the services and pricing that each of these networks offer or by the loads that each of these networks experience. When the MN makes a decision on the TAR and then realizes that the TAR is different from its current AR, if the MN supports Mobile IP, the MN initiates Mobile IP signaling to attach to the TAR. Another related problem is that for economic and performance reasons, many operators, especially wireless ones, deploy a number of low-cost APs connected to much fewer layer-3 access routers. In such cases, knowing the address of an AP does not reveal the address of AR automatically. This has an effect on wireless network handovers since as the user moves across the APs, it needs to find out whether it has also moved between access routers. For this the MN must perform a so-called reverse address translation, meaning that a MN from the layer-2 address of the AP needs to find out the IP address of the AR, to which the AP is connected. If the MN finds out that it has also changed subnets, it again needs to perform a Mobile IP handover. The delay involved in address translation and access router discovery affects the overall delay involved in a layer-3 handover.
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