Figure 5.7 First registration reply indicating a failure and the address of the redirected HA in .NET

Produce datamatrix 2d barcode in .NET Figure 5.7 First registration reply indicating a failure and the address of the redirected HA
Figure 5.7 First registration reply indicating a failure and the address of the redirected HA
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If the MN is using a co-located care of address, then the source and destination IP addresses for the registration request would be the MN CcoA and the IP address of the requested HA, respectively. If the requested HA agrees to become the HA for the MN, it sends a registration reply indicating successful registration and includes its IP address inside the HA field of the registration reply. In the majority of cases, the requested HA will not agree to become the HA for the MN, but the process in [MIPDYNHA] is based on the idea that the requested HA knows which HA the MN needs to be redirected to (regardless of which entity performs this selection). IETF has decided to call this HA the re-directed HA. As mentioned earlier, upon receiving the registration request, the requested HA rejects the request by creating a registration reply that includes an error code REDIRECT-HA-REQ and includes the address of the assigned HA inside the redirected HA extension . An example of this message for scenarios where the FA is present is shown in Figure 5.7. The FA forwards the message to the MN, which then creates a second registration request, this time towards the redirected HA. 5.2.1.3 Dynamic Key Establishment As mentioned, the bootstrapping solution depends on the deployment scenario. For instance, when the mobile node is roaming outside its home domain, it needs to authenticate itself to a service provider network prior to receiving Mobile IP services. At any rate, it is safe to assume that the mobile node shares a trust relationship (shared secrets or certificates) with the AAA server serving the domain to which Mobile IP home agent belongs. This relationship, along with the relationship between the visited domain and the mobile node s home domain, can be exploited to provide the security framework that is required for Mobile IP signaling. We will describe this process in a later chapter.
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5.2.2 Mobile IP Handovers and Their Shortcomings
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So far we have talked mostly about the use of Mobile IP for routing traffic for roaming mobile nodes. Sometimes roaming scenarios are when a mobile node boots up in a foreign network or initiates a session within the foreign network. By going through Mobile IP registration process during the boot-up or prior to the start of the session, the mobile node ensures proper routing procedures are set up for its traffic. However, true mobility support requires support for the handover of active sessions as well. In other words, a mobile node, involved in a communication session with a correspondent node, should be able to move from one network to another and still maintain that session. Although not emphasized so far in this section, it may be obvious to the reader that Mobile IP is also designed to support layer-3 handovers as well: a mobile node that moves to a new network acquires a new CoA and needs to register its new CoA with the HA. If the mobile node was already at another
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foreign network and had another CoA there, this registration means that the old CoA is no longer valid. Since the mapping between the home address and a CoA at home agent is called a binding, sending a registration for a new CoA is referred to as a binding update. Despite its simple concept, Mobile IP as a signaling protocol for handover support has been criticized for its poor performance. The signaling has to go all the way to the mobile node s home agent that is typically in the mobile node s home network, even though the mobile may be moving between two foreign networks that are relatively close. Another reason for this poor performance is that completion of a Mobile IP handover relies on a number of other things that need to happen first. In the following subsections we describe each of these factors. But before we go on, we need to describe a few key terms related to mobility architectures:
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Access point: Many wireless access operators deploy so-called wireless access points (AP) as the front end or the point of presence (POP) for their networks. From a logical standpoint the AP is a layer-2 device that provides layer-2 functionalities such as media access control, layer-2 resource management, layer-2 framing, layer-2 authentication to the users and at same time deals with layer-3 functions. In practice, the AP can vary from cheap and dumb devices (what the industry has started calling light-weight access points) to rather complicated devices capable of performing many more advanced functions, such as sophisticated interactions with AAA servers or providing the system administrator with many added tools such as simple network management protocol (SNMP) facilities. Access router: Due to the scarcity of IPv4 addresses, Mobile IPv4 deployed the specialized FAs to offer a way of providing IP connectivity to mobile nodes and saving IP addresses at the same time. IPv6 does not face such issues and thereby FAs did not have to be introduced in to Mobile IPv6 procedures. Simply a router at the edge of the access network would be able to provide routing functionality for mobile nodes joining the network. The IETF community needed a name for this edge router that provided a set of functions within access networks. Hence the term access router (AR) was introduced. Mobile-controlled handovers are types of handovers where the mobile makes the ultimate decision on whether to go ahead with the handover or not. Note that such handovers could be network-assisted, meaning that the mobile decides to hand over and performs the handover possibly based on the information it had received from the network elements. This handover model is the preferred one when each of the neighboring networks is owned by a different operator or deploys a different technology. Network-controlled handovers are types of handovers where the network makes the decision on handover and instructs the mobile node to perform the handover. From the load balancing and network management point of view, this is the preferred model, especially if the handover is within a homogeneous network owned by the same operator.
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Now that we have described the fundamental terminology for mobility, we can run through the factors that impact on Mobile IP handover performance.
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5.2.2.1 Layer-2 Triggers and Fast Handovers Most mobile nodes use wireless connections to ensure easy mobility. Wireless links typically use specific link layer (layer 2) technologies and access points, APs. This means handovers
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