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P[i 1] from the same user next time, it simply runs the hash on the previously received and stored password (P[i 1]) to confirm the validity of the currently received password. The S/key if designed properly allows the server to keep the password file in the clear, if such a file is needed. The SecureID cards created by RSA security are examples of one-time password mechanisms. The card generates new time-dependent keys (number sequences shown on the card display) every minute or so. The user has a memorable password and when logging to the network, the user combines her own password with the set of numbers, shown by the card, into the login application. Unfortunately, an attacker can capture the entire data and replay it before the next time-independent key is generated. 3. Challenge/response: Challenge/response authentication mechanism is based on the assumption that the user can use a password or a more sophisticated secret to calculate the response to a challenge issued by the network. The challenge is typically a randomly generated value, which is hopefully generated so that it does not repeat itself easily. The response is calculated based on a pre-negotiated hash algorithm and the knowledge of the secret, i.e. response = hash (challenge || key). Challenge/response methods were designed for two purposes: first to avoid sending the password over the wire or air and thereby avoiding the password-sniffing problem and second to prevent replay attacks, assuming that the challenge is generated with large entropy. Note that if not carefully designed, the security of challenge/response method can be worse than the password method. For instance, when simple hash algorithms with short-length keys are used, by sniffing a single (challenge, response) pair, the attacker can in all privacy conduct a dictionary search till she finds the key/password. Another example of flawed challenge/response design is when the server holds a local copy of the user password in the clear to verify the response to its challenge. Not holding the passwords in a hashed password file, as in password-based authentication methods, means that the attacker can simply attack the server and access the file (in the clear) and thereby access to the password for the user (or all users) or the password to other servers, if the user is using the same password for many servers. These two problems are referred to as weak password equivalence and strong password equivalence by IAB [AUTHSRV]. A solution to this problem is to use a two-stage hash process, in which the server calculates a hashed value of the password, using a salt and stores the hash, instead. The server then sends challenge and the salt to the user and expects a response from the user, which in turn performs the two-stage hash. The first hash leads to the password version stored at the server and the second hash leads to the response the challenge has if the stored password has been applied to the challenge. This way, the server can run a simple hash on the stored password, and when the challenge/response is sniffed and attacked, at best only the stored password will be compromised. The mathematical process is shown below. stored_password = hash(user_password || salt) User_response = hash(hash(user_password || salt) || challenge) Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is a protocol used for requesting and distributing information over the World Wide Web. The original HTTP standards only required a password-based authentication (called HTTP basic authentication), which was considered extremely weak for the scenario it was being used for. The challenge/response mechanism is enhanced for HTTP requests to web servers, so that not only the user but also the HTTP request for receiving content from the server is authenticated. The new challenge/response-based
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