Protocol Overview in .NET

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10.2 Protocol Overview
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The EAP message set and format were explained in 2. As seen there, EAP message set consists of only 4 messages, of which only EAP request (from server/NAS towards supplicant) and EAP response (from supplicant to server/NAS) carry data, while EAP success and EAP failure messages only carry the result of the authentication procedure. The simplicity of the EAP message set is quite reasonable, if we bear in mind that EAP is only meant to carry the exchange messaging for a specific authentication method that is performed between the peer and the EAP server (typically the AAA server) and at the same time allow a dumb NAS to act as a pass-through on the path between the peer and
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the server. The NAS only need to understand the EAP success and failure message, while allowing EAP requests and responses to pass through without understanding their content or meaning. A type field within the request and response messages is used to indicate the type of data as well as the type of authentication mechanism that is being used. Examples of lower type values used in the request/response packets are shown in Table 10.1, while the use of type field to indicate specific authentication mechanisms is shown later on in this section. The EAP framework specification calls these mechanisms the EAP methods and refers to messaging specific to those mechanisms as methodspecific messaging. A typical EAP exchange (sometimes referred to as EAP conversation) proceeds as follows:
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The authenticator (NAS) sends an EAP request to the peer. This request can be a request for authentication credential or simply a request for some sort of information. The type field in EAP request message indicates what sort of information is being asked for. A prime example is asking for the user s identity. EAP requests carrying Identity type are usually called EAP Identity request messages. When human user interactions are required, optional displayable messages for the user may be included in the messaging. As noted in Table 10.1, if information exchange at this point is performed in clear-text form, exchanging user identity during this early phase is not recommended, especially if
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Table 10.1 Value 1
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Examples of type field values used for EAP request and response messages Description Used by the authenticator to query the Identity of the peer and by the peer to respond with her/its identity to the authenticator. Since identity request and response are sent in the clear, this may not be a desirable approach to obtain peer s identity when privacy is a concern. In such cases it is recommended that each EAP method specifies a safer mechanism to obtain identity. Alternatively, the peer may respond with decorated identities that are different from the peer s true identity. Used to convey a displayable message from the authenticator to the peer. One example is when the user types her identity incorrectly and needs to be notified by the authenticator to try again. Another example is notification about a password that is about to expire. Unless prohibited by the authentication method, the peer responds to a Notification request with a Notification respond. A legacy type that can only be used in EAP response messages. Examples are when a peer needs to indicate to the authenticator that it cannot accept the required authentication type. In such cases the peer response contains suggestions on one or more authentication types. NAK type is not used for error indications. Explained later on
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Type Identity
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Note: Type 4 and above are used to indicate specific authentication methods.
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user privacy protection is a concern. It is recommended that the identity of the client is communicated to the authenticator through method-specific signaling that provides confidentiality for messages carrying user identity. We will discuss EAP-TTLS as a prime example of such signaling. Some EAP methods also provide per-packet authentication, integrity and replay protection. The peer responds to the EAP request, with an EAP response message of the same type. For instance, if the request was an Identity request, the response would be an Identity response. If the type field in the EAP request had suggested an authentication method, the peer either responds to the needs of the authentication method with a EAP response message of the same type, or responds with an EAP response message of type NAK (type 3), indicating that the suggested authentication method is not acceptable. In such cases, the peer s response contains suggestions on one or more authentication methods. This is accomplished by including the type values for those methods within the type-data field of the NAK response message. We will talk about the authentication types in more detail shortly. From this point on many EAP request/response pairs may be exchanged between the peer and the authenticator to carry method-specific conversations. As mentioned before, after sending each EAP request, the authenticator (NAS) waits until it receives a response from the peer. The NAS does not have to understand each authentication method and can simply act as the pass-through agent for the EAP server. This will also facilitate upgrades of authentication methods as well as the credential management, since peer credentials do not have to be maintained (or cached ) at the NAS or even revealed to the NAS.
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As mentioned above, EAP types 4 and higher are used to indicate the authentication method used by the EAP messaging and for that reason are referred to as EAP method types. Except 20, almost all method types from 4 up till 45 are already allocated to various EAP authentication methods. The latest list of EAP method types can be found on the IANA website for EAP numbers [EAPIANA], from where we cite some of the more popular ones in Table 10.2. Type values 4 6 represent authentication methods that are described by the main EAP RFC [EAP3748]. For that reason we provide a brief description of these methods here. In the rest of this chapter we will provide more details of some of the other popular methods, such as EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, LEAP and PEAP. Type value 4 indicates that authentication messaging relates to an MD5-challenge as an authentication method, which is very similar to PPP-CHAP (explained in 2).
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