PKI Management Basic Functions in .NET

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9.1.4 PKI Management Basic Functions
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The categorization of a function as a PKI management function can vary greatly from one protocol to another. Many variants of PKI management protocols have been proposed with
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varying degrees of functionality richness and complexity. One feels that the most basic functionality to be expected from a PKI is to issue and revoke certificates, and therefore the most basic management protocol needs to support the transactions that involve certificate requests and revocation requests. Therefore we discuss the transactions that cover these basic functionalities first and then go into more complicated and rare features.
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9.1.4.1 Basic PKI Transactions In the following we describe the basic transactions involved with issuing and revoking certificates:
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Certificate requests: Certificate requests are either for a subject name that already owns a certificate from the CA or for a subject that does not own a currently valid certificate from the CA. Therefore, the reason for requesting a new certificate may either be that the subject requests a new certificate for the same key pair or that it requests a certificate for a different key pair. The former is called an initial certificate request, while the latter is called a basic certificate request. A third kind of certificate request can be originated from a different CA. Either a subordinate CA in the same hierarchy or a peer CA can make such a request. Certificate response: For now, we only consider certificate requests that have not been rejected. Hence, certificate response will define the act of responding to the certificate request, either by sending a certificate response message including the requested certificate, or returning the certificate to the user through some other means. Certificate revocation requests: Revocation request can come from either the subject of the certificate or another entity. Certificate revocation response: Typically this is not in the form of an actual message. The effect of a successful certificate revocation process may not be seen until the next issued CRL.
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The complexity and richness of the management protocol dictate which of these messages are implemented and how they are implemented. For instance, a certificate request transaction may include messaging for a request, a response and a confirmation message or simply messaging for only the request. The request message itself may be issued by the entity itself, an end entity outside the PKI (such as a VPN server) or an RA within the PKI. The request can be received by different entities as well as described later on.
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9.1.4.2 Enrollment and Authentication The enrollment process is usually highly dependent on the administration policy and is by and large impacted by a trade-off between security and the acceptable PKI administration overhead. The details of the authentication and proof of possession also depend on the type of certificate request. For instance, when a client requests a certificate, if the client is already known to the CA, such as a client that is requesting a new certificate, while holding another valid certificate (basic certificate request), then the client can authenticate itself to the CA using the valid certificate along with the certificate request. On the other hand, when an unknown client requests a certificate for the first time (initial certificate request), the CA must have a way of verifying the identity of the client. This means the CA must use a separate
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channel to verify the client s identity (authentication) and other claimed information. This is typically done in an out-of-bound manner which depends on whether a CA deals with the client directly, or through a registration authority:
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When the CA deals directly with the client, according to the so-called two-party mode, the out-of-bound model can be email or regular mail. For instance, if the user has claimed to possess a certain email address, the CA may generate a random value called authenticator and send it to the user s email address. The user returns the authenticator in a response email and thereby proves that it owns that email address. As we can see, this method has limited applicability, since proof of possession of an email address is hardly the same as proof of possession of an actual identity (such as what is indicated in a driver s license for a person or an actual hard-coded MAC address for a device). In the case above, the issued certificate can only be used to sign or encrypt data transmitted through email and not through any other means. A more sophisticated implementation may require the user to possess a cryptographic module (with embedded private key) that creates a response to the authenticator from the CA. Since certificates often include more information than just a form of identity and public key, even possession of the cryptographic module does not guarantee the correctness of all the information claimed for certification. This means the two-party model is inherently flawed in that it cannot provide a secure means of verification of the information presented by the client. The limitation of the two-party model created the need to develop models in which the authentication and enrollment process is outsourced to a third party and hence the name: three-party model. In a three-party model, an RA assists the CA in verification of the information presented by the client. We did mention that an RA may also assist the user with various parts of certification request. If the client holds a cryptographic module, it may create a key pair and a certificate request. The client may present the certificate request to the RA, which after authenticating the client, forwards the request to the CA. If the client does not hold a cryptographic model, both the key pair and certificate request may be generated by the RA and forwarded to the CA after the RA has authenticated the client. The alternative way to get around the three-party model is when the client presents the certificate request to CA, which forwards it to the RA for outsourcing of the client authentication and waits for the RA to confirm the authentication before it processes the certificate request and issues the certificate. In either case, the point is that when RA is present, the RA is in charge of authentication. We should note that authentication does not have to be done electronically or as part of PKI management protocol. For instance, a user may authenticate itself in person to the RA by presenting a physical ID or submit the authentication credentials along with other material electronically to the RA. In either case, care must be taken that the CA does not issue any certificate for an unauthenticated client or any certificate including information that is not verified. The final certificate may be either delivered to the client by the CA directly or through the RA.
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