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PE Executables contain a list of special optional directories, which are essentially additional data structures that executables can contain. Most directories have a special data structure that describes their contents, and none of them is required for an executable to function properly.
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SomeModule.DLL
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Export Section Function1 Function2
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ImportingModule.EXE Code Section
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Export Section Function1 Function2 Function3 AnotherModule.DLL
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Export Section Function1 Function2 Function3
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Code Section
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Import Section SomeModule.DLL: Function1 Function2 AnotherModule.DLL: Function4 Function 9
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Figure 3.4 The dynamic linking process and how modules can be interconnected using their import and export tables.
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Table 3.1 lists the common directories and provides a brief explanation on each one.
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Table 3.1 NAME Export Table The Optional Directories in the Portable Executable File Format. DESCRIPTION Lists the names and RVAs of all exported functions in the current module. ASSOCIATED DATA STRUCTURE IMAGE_EXPORT_ DIRECTORY
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Import Table
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Lists the names of module IMAGE_IMPORT_ and functions that are DESCRIPTOR imported from the current module. For each function, the list contains a name string (or an ordinal) and an RVA that points to the current function s import address table entry. This is the entry that receives the actual pointer to the imported function in runtime, when the module is loaded. Points to the executable s resource directory. A resource directory is a static definition or various user-interface elements such as strings, dialog box layouts, and menus. Contains a list of addresses within the module that must be recalculated in case the module gets loaded in any address other than the one it was built for. IMAGE_RESOURCE_ DIRECTORY
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Resource Table
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IMAGE_BASE_ RELOCATION
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Debugging Information
Contains debugging IMAGE_DEBUG_ information for the executable. DIRECTORY This is usually presented in the form of a link to an external symbol file that contains the actual debugging information. Points to a special thread-local section in the executable that can contain thread-local variables. This functionality is managed by the loader when the executable is loaded. IMAGE_TLS_ DIRECTORY
Thread Local Storage Table
(continued)
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Table 3.1 NAME Load Configuration Table (continued) DESCRIPTION Contains a variety of image configuration elements, such as a special LOCK prefix table (which can modify an image in load time to accommodate for uniprocessor or multiprocessor systems). This table also contains information for a special security feature that lists the legitimate exception handlers in the module (to prevent malicious code from installing an illegal exception handler). Contains an additional import-related table that contains information on bound import entries. A bound import means that the importing executable contains actual addresses into the exporting module. This directory is used for confirming that such addresses are still valid. Contains a list of entries for each function imported from the current module. These entries are initialized in load time to the actual addresses of the imported functions. Contains special information that can be used for implementing a delayed-load importing mechanism whereby an imported function is only resolved when it is first called. This mechanism is not supported by the operating system and is implemented by the C runtime library. ASSOCIATED DATA STRUCTURE IMAGE_LOAD_ CONFIG_ DIRECTORY
Bound Import Table
IMAGE_BOUND_ IMPORT_ DESCRIPTOR
Import Address Table (IAT)
A list of 32-bit pointers
Delay Import Descriptor
ImgDelayDescr
Windows Fundamentals
Input and Output
I/O can be relevant to reversing because tracing a program s communications with the outside world is much easier than doing code-level reversing, and can at times be almost as informative. In fact, some reversing sessions never reach the code-level reversing phase by simply monitoring a program s I/O we can often answer every question we have regarding our target program. The following sections provide a brief introduction to the various I/O channels implemented in Windows. These channels can be roughly divided into two layers: the low-level layer is the I/O system which is responsible for communicating with the hardware, and so on. The higher-level layer is the Win32 subsystem, which is responsible for implementing the GUI and for processing user input.
The I/O System
The I/O system is a combination of kernel components that manage the device drivers running in the system and the communication between applications and device drivers. Device drivers register with the I/O system, which enables applications to communicate with them and make generic or device-specific requests from the device. Generic requests include basic tasks such having a file system read or writing to a file. The I/O system is responsible for relaying such request from the application to the device driver responsible for performing the operation. The I/O system is layered, which means that for each device there can be multiple device drivers that are stacked on top of each other. This enables the creation of a generic file system driver that doesn t care about the specific storage device that is used. In the same way it is possible to create generic storage drivers that don t care about the specific file system driver that will be used to manage the data on the device. The I/O system will take care of connecting the two components together, and because they use well-defined I/O System interfaces, they will be able to coexist without special modifications. This layered architecture also makes it relatively easy to add filter drivers, which are additional layers that monitor or modify the communications between drivers and the applications or between two drivers. Thus it is possible to create generic data processing drivers that perform some kind of processing on every file before it is sent to the file system (think of a transparent file-compression or file-encryption driver). The I/O system is interesting to us as reversers because we often monitor it to extract information regarding our target program. This is usually done by tools that insert special filtering code into the device hierarchy and start monitoring the flow of data. The device being monitored can represent any kind of