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A Virtual Address Descriptor (V AD) tree is the data structure used by Windows for managing each individual process s address allocation. The VAD tree is a binary tree that describes every address range that is currently in use. Each process has its own individual tree, and within those trees each entry describes the memory allocation in question. Generally speaking, there are two distinct kinds of allocations: mapped allocations and private allocations. Mapped allocations are memory-mapped files that are mapped into the address space. This includes all executables loaded into the process address space and every memory-mapped file (section object) mapped into the address space. Private allocations are allocations that are process private and were allocated locally. Private allocations are typically used for heaps and stacks (there can be multiple stacks in a single process one for each thread).
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Let s take a look at what goes on in user-mode address spaces. Of course we can t be as specific as we were in our earlier discussion of the kernel address
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space every application is different. Still, it is important to understand how applications use memory and how to detect different memory types. Private Allocations Private allocations are the most basic type of memory allocation in a process. This is the simple case where an application requests a memory block using the VirtualAlloc Win32 API. This is the most primitive type of memory allocation, because it can only allocate whole pages and nothing smaller than that. Private allocations are typically used by the system for allocating stacks and heaps (see below). Heaps Most Windows applications don t directly call VirtualAlloc instead they allocate a heap block by calling a runtime library function such as malloc or by calling a system heap API such as HeapAlloc. A heap is a data structure that enables the creation of multiple variablesized blocks of memory within a larger block. Interally, a heap tries to manage the available memory wisely so that applications can conveniently allocate and free variable-sized blocks as required. The operating system offers its own heaps through the HeapAlloc and HeapFree Win32 APIs, but an application can also implement its own heaps by directly allocating private blocks using the VirtualAlloc API. Stacks User-mode stacks are essentially regular private allocations, and the system allocates a stack automatically for every thread while it is being created. Executables Another common allocation type is a mapped executable allocation. The system runs application code by loading it into memory as a memory-mapped file. Mapped Views (Sections) Applications can create memory-mapped files and map them into their address space. This is a convenient and commonly used method for sharing memory between two or more programs.
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The Windows Virtual Memory Manager is accessible to application programs using a set of Win32 APIs that can directly allocate and free memory blocks in user-mode address spaces. The following are the popular Win32 low-level memory management APIs. VirtualAlloc This function allocates a private memory block within a user-mode address space. This is a low-level memory block whose size must be page-aligned; this is not a variable-sized heap block such as those allocated by malloc (the C runtime library heap function). A block can be either reserved or actually committed. Reserving a block means that we simply reserve the address space but don t actually use
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up any memory. Committing a block means that we actually allocate space for it in the system page file. No physical memory will be used until the memory is actually accessed. VirtualProtect This function sets a memory region s protection settings, such as whether the block is readable, writable, or executable (newer versions of Windows actually prevent the execution of nonexecutable blocks). It is also possible to use this function to change other low-level settings such whether the block is cached by the hardware or not, and so on. VirtualQuery This function queries the current memory block (essentially retrieving information for the block s VAD node) for various details such as what type of block it is (a private allocation, a section, or an image), and whether its reserved, committed, or unused. VirtualFree This function frees a private allocation block (like those allocated using VirtualAlloc). All of these APIs deal with the currently active address space, but Windows also supports virtual-memory operations on other processes, if the process is privileged enough to do that. All of the APIs listed here have an Ex version (VirtualAllocEx, VirtualQueryEx, and so on.) that receive a handle to a process object and can operate on the address spaces of processes other than the one currently running. As part of that same functionality, Windows also offers two APIs that actually access another process s address space and can read or write to it. These APIs are ReadProcessMemory and WriteProcessMemory. Another group of important memory-manager APIs is the section object APIs. In Win32 a section object is called a memory-mapped file and can be created using the CreateFileMapping API. A section object can be mapped into the user-mode address space using the MapViewOfFileEx API, and can be unmapped using the UnmapViewOfFile API.
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