Generic Data Type Arrays in .NET

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Generic Data Type Arrays
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Generic data type arrays are usually arrays of pointers, integers, or any other single-word-sized items. These are very simple to manage because the index is simply multiplied by the machine s word size. In 32-bit processors this means multiplying by 4, so that when a program is accessing an array of 32-bit words it must simply multiply the desired index by 4 and add that to the array s starting address in order to reach the desired item s memory address.
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Data Structure Arrays
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Data structure arrays are similar to conventional arrays (that contain basic data types such as integers, and so on), except that the item size can be any value, depending on the size of the data structure. The following is an average data-structure array access code.
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mov shl mov cmp eax, DWORD PTR [ebp 0x20] eax, 4 ecx, DWORD PTR [ebp 0x24] DWORD PTR [ecx+eax+4], 0
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This snippet was taken from the middle of a loop. The ebp 0x20 local variable seems to be the loop s counter. This is fairly obvious because ebp 0x20 is loaded into EAX, which is shifted left by 4 (this is the equivalent of multiplying by 16, see Appendix B). Pointers rarely get multiplied in such a way it is much more common with array indexes. Note that while reversing with a live debugger it is slightly easier to determine the purpose of the two local variables because you can just take a look at their values. After the multiplication ECX is loaded from ebp 0x24, which seems to be the array s base pointer. Finally, the pointer is added to the multiplied index plus 4. This is a classic data-structure-in-array sequence. The first variable (ECX) is the base pointer to the array. The second variable (EAX) is the current byte offset into the array. This was created by multiplying the current logical index by the size of each item, so you now know that each item in your array is 16 bytes long. Finally, the program adds 4 because this is how it accesses a specific member within the structure. In this case the second item in the structure is accessed.
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Linked Lists
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Linked lists are a popular and convenient method of arranging a list in memory. Programs frequently use linked lists in cases where items must frequently be added and removed from different parts of the list. A significant disadvantage with linked lists is that items are generally not directly accessible through their index, as is the case with arrays (though it would be fair to say that this only affects certain applications that need this type of direct access). Additionally, linked lists have a certain memory overhead associated with them because of the inclusion of one or two pointers along with every item on the list. From a reversing standpoint, the most significant difference between an array and a linked list is that linked list items are scattered in memory and each item contains a pointer to the next item and possibly to the previous item (in doubly linked lists). This is different from array items which are stored sequentially in memory. The following sections discuss singly linked lists and doubly linked lists.
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Appendix C
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Singly Linked Lists
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Singly linked lists are simple data structures that contain a combination of the payload , and a next pointer, which points to the next item. The idea is that the position of each item in memory has nothing to do with the logical order of items in the list, so that when item order changes, or when items are added and removed, no memory needs to be copied. Figure C.2 shows how a linked list is arranged logically and in memory. The following code demonstrates how a linked list is traversed and accessed in a program:
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mov test je LoopStart: mov mov push push call test jne mov test jne AfterLoop: ... esi, DWORD PTR [ebp + 0x10] esi, esi AfterLoop eax, DWORD PTR [esi+88] ecx, DWORD PTR [esi+84] eax ecx ProcessItem al, al AfterLoop esi, DWORD PTR [esi+196] esi, esi LoopStart
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This code section is a common linked-list iteration loop. In this example, the compiler has assigned the current item s pointer into ESI what must have been called pCurrentItem (or something of that nature) in the source code. In the beginning, the program loads the current item variable with a value from ebp + 0x10. This is a parameter that was passed to the current function it is most likely the list s head pointer. The loop s body contains code that passes the values of two members from the current item to a function. I ve named this function ProcessItem for the sake of readability. Note that the return value from this function is checked and that the loop is interrupted if that value is nonzero. If you take a look near the end, you will see the code that accesses the current item s next member and replaces the current item s pointer with it. Notice that the offset into the next item is 196. That is a fairly high number, indicating that you re dealing with large items, probably a large data structure. After loading the next pointer, the code checks that it s not NULL and breaks the loop if it is. This is most likely a while loop that checks the value of pCurrentItem. The following is the original source code for the previous assembly language snippet.
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