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315 In 15, we discuss operator overloading in detail) Typically, the class definition and any associated constant values or typedef names are stored in a header file The header file is named with the class name So, for example, we would create an IntArrayh and Matrixh pair of header files All programs wishing to use either the IntArray or Matrix class include the associated header file Similarly, the member functions of a class not defined within the class definition are typically stored in a program text file having the same name as the class For example, we would create an IntArrayC and MatrixC pair of program text files in which to store the associated class member functions (Remember that the suffix used to indicate a program text file varies across compilation systems; you should check for the convention followed under your system) Rather than require that these functions be recompiled with each program wishing to use their associated classes, the member functions are precompiled and stored in a class library The iostream library is one such example Exercise 25 The key feature of a C++ class is the separation of interface and implementation The interface is the set of operations that users can apply to objects of the class It consists of three parts: the name of the operations, their return values, and their parameter lists Generally, that is all the user of the class is required to know The private implementation consists of the algorithms and data necessary to support the public interface Ideally, even though the class interface may grow, it does not change in ways incompatible with earlier versions during the lifetime of the class The implementation, on the other hand, is free to evolve over the lifetime of the class Choose one of the following abstractions and write the public interface for that class:
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Exercise 26 The words constructor and destructor are somewhat misleading in that these programmer-supplied functions neither construct nor destroy the objects of the class to which they are applied by the compiler automatically When we write
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int main() { IntArray myArray( 1024 ); // return 0; }
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the memory necessary to maintain the data members of myArray is allocated prior to application of the constructor The compiler, in effect, internally transforms our program as follows (note that this is not legal C++ code):
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For those interested, this material is covered in our companion volume, Inside the C++ Object Model
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int main() { IntArray myArray; // Pseudo C++ Code -- apply constructor myArrayIntArray::IntArray( 1024 ); // // Pseudo C++ Code -- apply destructor myArrayIntArray::~IntArray();
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The constructors of a class serve primarily to initialize the data members of the class object The destructor primarily frees any resources acquired by the class object during its lifetime Define the set of constructors needed by the class you chose in Exercise 25 Does your class require a destructor Exercise 27 In Exercises 25 and 26, you have specified nearly the complete public interface necessary for use of the class (We may still need to define a copy assignment operator, but we'll ignore that fact for now C++ provides default support for the assignment of one class object with another The problem is that this default behavior is often inadequate See Section 146 for a discussion) Write a program to exercise the public interface of the class you defined in the two previous exercises Is it easy or awkward to use Do you wish to revise the specification Can you do that and maintain compatibility
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Our implementations of min() and max() make no special assumptions about the storage of the array elements and therefore require that we examine each element Had we required the elements to be sorted, the implementation of both operations would become a simple index into, respectively, the first and last element Moreover, a search for the presence of an element is considerably more efficient if the elements are known to be sorted Supporting the elements in sorted order, however, adds to the complexity of the Array class implementation Have we made a mistake in our design We haven't made a mistake so much as we've made a choice A sorted array is a specialized implementation: when it is necessary, it is absolutely necessary; otherwise, the overhead of its support is a burden Our implementation is more general and, in most circumstances, adequate; it supports a wider range of users Unfortunately, if the user absolutely needs the behavior of a sorted array, our implementation cannot support that There is no way for the user to override the more general implementations of min(), max(), and find() In effect, we have chosen a generally useful implementation that is inappropriate under special circumstances On the other hand, for another category of user our implementation is too specialized: range-checking of the index adds overhead to each access of an element We discounted the cost of this in our design (see item 8 in Section 23) with the assumption that being fast is of little value if we are incorrect This assumption, however, does not hold true for at least one of our major users: a real-time virtual-immersion or virtualreality provider The arrays, in this case, represent shared vertices of complex 3D geometry The scene flies by too quickly for an occasional error to be generally visible, but if the general access is too slow, the immersion effect breaks down Our implementation, although considerably safer than a non-range-checking array class, is impractical for this application domain How might we support the needs of these three sets of users The solutions are already present in the code, more or less For example, our range-checking is localized within the subscript operator Remove the invocation of check_range(), rename the array, and we now have two implementations: one with and one without range-checking Copy more of the code, modify it to treat the array as sorted, and we now have support for a sorted array:
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// Unsorted, with no bounds-checking class IntArray{ }; // Unsorted, with bounds-checking class IntArrayRC{ }; // Sorted, without bounds-checking class IntSortedArray{ };
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