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An empty compound statement is equivalent to a null statement and provides an alternative syntax to the use of a null statement, as in the following:
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while ( *string++ = *inBuf++ ) {} // equivalent of null statement
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A compound statement containing one or more declaration statements, such as the preceding example, is also referred to as a block, or statement block A block introduces a local scope within the program; identifiers declared within the block, such as temp in the example, are visible only within the block Blocks, scope, and the lifetime of objects are considered in detail in 8
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Declaration Statement
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In C++, the definition of an object, such as
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int ival;
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is treated as a statement of the language (spoken of as a declaration statement, although definition statement is more accurate in this case) and so can generally be placed anywhere within the program that a statement is allowed Consider, for example, the following program (the declaration statements are numbered as //#n, where n is numbered consecutively beginning at 1):
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#include <stream> #include <string> #include <vector> int main() { string fileName; // #1 cout "Please enter name of file to open: "; cin >> fileName; if ( fileNameempty() ) { // yes, extreme: but we have a point to illustrate cerr "fileName is empty() bailing out bye!\n"; return -1; } ifstream inFile( fileNamec_str() ); // #2 if ( ! inFile ) { cerr "unable to open file bailing out bye!\n"; return -2; } string inBuf; // #3 vector< string > text; // #4 while ( inFile >> inBuf ) { for ( int ix = 0; ix < inBufsize(); ++ix ) // #5 // ch in this case is unnecessary, // but again illustrates a point if (( char ch = inBuf[ix] ) == '' ) { // #6 ch = '_'; inBuf[ix] = ch;
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} textpush_back( inBuf ); } if ( textempty() ) return 0; // one declaration statement, two definitions vector<string>::iterator iter = textbegin(), // #7 iend = textend(); while ( iter != iend ) { cout *iter '\n'; ++iter; } return 0; }
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The program contains seven declaration statements and eight object definitions The declaration statements exhibit locality of declaration that is, the declaration statements occur within the locality of the first use of the defined objects In the 1970s, computer program language design philosophy emphasized the virtue of defining all objects at the start of the program, function, or statement block prior to any program statements (In C, for example, the definition of an object is not treated as a language statement, and all object definitions within a block must appear before any program statements By necessity, C programmers habituate themselves to defining all objects at the top of each current block) In part, this was a reaction to an errorprone idiom of object definition on-the-fly supported by FORTRAN Because the definition of an object is a statement of the language, object definitions in general can be placed anywhere that the other statements of the language can appear Syntactically, this is what makes locality of declaration possible Is it necessary For the built-in types, such as integers and floats, lo ality of declaration is primarily a matter of personal preference The language encourages it by allowing declarations to occur within the condition part of the if, else-if, switch, while, and for loop (there are two examples in the preceding program) Those who favor locality of declaration believe that it makes for more easily understood programs Locality of declaration becomes necessary with the definition of class objects with associated constructors and a destructor When we place these class objects at the beginning of a function or statement block, two things happen: 1 The associated constructors of all the class objects are invoked prior to doing anything within the function or statement block itself Locality of declaration allows us to amortize the cost of initialization across the extent of the function or statement block 2 Perhaps more important, a function or statement block often terminates prior to the execution of every program statement within it Our earlier program, for example, exhibits two abnormal termination points: the failure to retrieve a file name and the failure to open the file specified by the user Defining class objects prior to successfully passing those termination points, such as inBuf and text, results in the execution of unnecessary constructor-destructor pairs Given enough class objects or computationally expensive constructors and destructors, we unnecessarily impact the run-time efficiency of our programs The outcome is still correct, but the performance at times becomes unacceptable (This is why expert C programmers, with the habit of placing object definitions at the start of functions and statement blocks, may sometimes find their C++ programs performing with less efficiency than equivalent programs written in C) A declaration statement can consist of one or more object definitions In our program, for example, we define two vector iterators in the same declaration statement:
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