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The exception class hierarchy can be further refined Other classes can be derived from the base class Excp to describe in a more detailed manner the possible exceptions that can be detected in our programs:
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class Excp { }; class stackExcp : public Excp { }; class popOnEmpty : public stackExcp { }; class pushOnFull : public stackExcp { }; class mathExcp : public Excp { }; class zeroOp : public mathExcp { }; class divideByZero : public mathExcp { };
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These further refinements allow for a more precise identification of the program anomalies that can happen in our program The additional exception classes are organized into layers As the hierarchy becomes deeper, every layer becomes a more specific exception For example, the first and most general layer of our previous exception class hierarchy is represented by class Excp The second layer specializes the class Excp into two different classes: stackExcp (for exceptions occurring when manipulating our iStack class) and mathExcp (for exceptions that happen within the functions of our math library) The third and most specialized layer of our hierarchy refines the exception classes even further The classes popOnEmpty and pushOnFull define two kinds of stackExcp exceptions, whereas the classes zeroOp and divideByZero define two kinds of mathExcp exceptions In the following subsections we look at how to throw and handle exceptions with types that are the classes in the hierarchy we just defined Throwing an Exception of Class Type Now that we have seen class types in more detail, let's examine what happens when the iStack member function push() throws an exception:
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void iStack::push( int value ) { if ( full() ) // value stored in exception object throw pushOnFull( value ); // }
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Many steps take place as a consequence of executing this throw expression: 1 The throw expression creates a temporary object of class type pushOnFull by calling the class constructor 2 An exception object of type pushOnFull is created to be passed to the exception handler The exception object is a copy of the
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temporary object created by the throw expression in step 1 It is created by calling the class pushOnFull's copy constructor 3 The temporary object created by the throw expression in step 1 is destroyed before the search for a handler starts You may wonder why step 2 is needed; that is, why is an exception object created The throw expression
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pushOnFull( value );
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creates a temporary object that is destroyed at the end of the throw expression The exception, however, must last until a handler is found, which may be many functions further up the chain of function calls It is therefore necessary to copy the temporary object into a storage location, called the exception object, that is guaranteed to last until the exception has been handled In some cases it may be possible for the implementation to create the exception object directly, without creating the temporary object in step 1 However, this temporary elimination is not required or always possible Because the exception object is created by copying the value of the throw expression, the exception thrown always has the exact type of the expression specified on the throw expression For example:
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void iStack::push( int value ) { if ( full() ) { pushOnFull except( value ); stackExcp *pse = &except; throw *pse; // exception object has type stackExcp } // }
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The type of the expression *pse is stackExcp The type of the exception object created is stackExcp, even though pse refers to an object with the actual type pushOnFull The actual type of the object referred to by the throw expression is never examined to create the exception object The exception is therefore not handled by a catch clause of type pushOnFull The actions of a throw expression imply some restrictions on the kind of classes that can be used to create exception objects The throw expression in the iStack member function push() is in error if 1 The class pushOnFull does not have a constructor that accepts an argument of type int or if this constructor is not accessible 2 The class pushOnFull has either a copy constructor or a destructor that is not accessible 3 The class pushOnFull is an abstract base class, because a program cannot create an object of an abstract class type (as mentioned in Section 171) Handling an Exception of Class Type When exceptions are organized into class hierarchies, an exception of class type may be caught by a catch clause for a public base class of that class type For example, an exception of type pushOnFull can be handled by a catch clause for exceptions of type stackExcp or Excp
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