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void company::payroll( employee *pe ) { // use of pe->salary() }
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Our company has different kinds of employees The parameter to the company member function payroll() is a pointer to an employee class that may either refer to a manager type or a programmer type Because payroll() calls the virtual member function salary(), the appropriate overriding function in either the manager or programmer class is called, depending on the kind of employee to which pe refers Let's assume that the employee class does not suit our needs any longer and we wish to modify it We want to add an additional member function called bonus() to be used in addition to the member function salary() when calculating our company's payroll We can do this by adding an additional virtual member function to the classes in the employee hierarchy For example:
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class employee { public: virtual int salary(); virtual int bonus(); }; class manager : public employee { public: int salary(); }; class programmer : public employee { public: int salary(); int bonus(); }; void company::payroll( employee *pe ) { // use of pe->salary() and pe->bonus() }
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If payroll()'s parameter pe refers to an object of type manager, the virtual member function bonus() defined in the base class employee is called because the manager class does not override the virtual function bonus() defined in class employee If payroll()'s parameter pe refers to an object of type programmer, the virtual member function bonus() defined in the class programmer is called When adding virtual functions to a class hierarchy, it becomes necessary to recompile all of the class member functions in the class hierarchy We can add the virtual member function bonus() if we have access to the source code implementing the member functions of the classes employee, manager, and programmer This is not always the case If the previous class hierachy is provided by a third-party library vendor, the vendor may have provided only the headers defining the interface of the classes in the library and the object files for the library The source code for the class member functions may not be available In this case, recompiling the member functions for the classes in the hierarchy is not possible If we wish to extend the class library, we cannot add virtual member functions We may still want to add the functionality, in which case the use of the dynamic_cast becomes necessary The dynamic_cast operator is used to obtain a pointer to a derived class to use some detail of the derived class that is not otherwise available For example, let's assume that we extend the library by adding the additional member function bonus() to the class programmer We can add the declaration of this member function to the definition of the class programmer available in the
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header file, and define this new member function in one of our own program text files:
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class employee { public: virtual int salary(); }; class manager : public employee { public: int salary(); }; class programmer : public employee { public: int salary(); int bonus(); };
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Remember that our function payroll() receives a parameter that is a pointer to the base class employee We can use the dynamic_cast operator to obtain a pointer to the derived class programmer and use this pointer to call the member function bonus(), as follows:
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void company::payroll( employee *pe ) { programmer *pm = dynamic_cast< programmer* >( pe ); // if pe refers to an object of type programmer, // the dynamic_cast is successful, // and pm refers to the start of the programmer object if ( pm ) { // use pm to call programmer::bonus() } // if pe does not refer to an object of type programmer, // the dynamic_cast fails, // and pm has the value 0 else { // use of employee's member functions } }
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