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Visibility of Virtual Base Class Members Let's redefine our Bear class to provide its own instance of the ZooAnimal onExhibit () member function:
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bool Bear::onExhibit() { }
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Referring to onExhibit() through a Bear class object now resolves to the Bear instance:
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Bear winnie( "a lover of honey" ); winnieonExhibit(); // Bear::onExhibit()
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Referring to onExhibit() through a Raccoon class object still resolves to the inherited ZooAnimal member:
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Raccoon meeko( "a lover of all foods" ); meekoonExhibit(); // ZooAnimal::onExhibit()
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The derived Panda class inherits the members of its two base classes These fall into three categories: 1 The ZooAnimal virtual base class instances, such as name() and family_name (), which are not overridden by either the Bear or Raccoon derivations 2 The ZooAnimal virtual base class instance of onExhibit() inherited through Raccoon and the overriding instance Bear defines 3 The specialized Bear and Raccoon instances of the ZooAnimal print() function Which of the inherited members can be accessed unambiguously and directly within the scope of the Panda class Under a nonvirtual derivation, the answer is none All unqualified references under a nonvirtual derivation are ambiguous Under a virtual derivation, all of the members under items 1 and 2 can be accessed unambiguously and directly For example, given the Panda class object
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Panda spot( "Spottie" );
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the call
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invokes the shared ZooAnimal virtual base class name() member function The call
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spotonExhibit();
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invokes the derived Bear onExhibit() member function When two or more instances of a member are inherited through separate derivation paths (this applies not only to member functions, but data members and nested types as well) and if both represent the same virtual base class member, there is no ambiguity because a single instance of the member is shared (item 1); if one represents a virtual base class member and the other a subsequently derived instance, there is also no ambiguity (the specialized derived class instance is given precedence over the shared virtual base class instance [item 2]); but if both represent subsequently derived class instances, the direct access of the member is ambiguous This is best resolved by providing an overriding instance in the derived class (item 3) For example, under a nonvirtual derivation, an unqualified reference to onExhibit() through a Panda class object is ambiguous
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// error: ambiguous under nonvirtual derivation Panda yolo( "a lover of bamboo" ); yoloonExhibit();
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Under a nonvirtual derivation, each inherited instance is given equal weight in resolving the reference, and so an unqualified reference results in a compile-time ambiguity error (see the discussion in Section 1841) Under a virtual derivation, the inheritance of a virtual base class member is given less weight than a subsequently redefined instance of that member The inherited Bear instance of onExhibit() is given precedence over the ZooAnimal instance inherited through Raccoon:
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// ok: unambiguous under virtual inheritance // Bear::onExhibit() invoked yoloonExhibit();
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If two or more base classes at the same derivation level redefine a virtual base class member, they are accorded equal precedence within the derived class For example, if Raccoon also defined an onExhibit() member, Panda would need to qualify each access with the appropriate class scope operator
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bool Panda::onExhibit() { return Bear::onExhibit() && Raccoon::onExhibit() && ! _sleeping; }
Exercise 1813
Given the following class hierarchy,
class Class { }; class Base : public Class { };
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file:///F|/WinDDK/resources/CPPPrimer/c++primerhtm
class Derived1 : virtual public Base { }; class Derived2 : virtual public Base { }; class MI : public Derived1, public Derived2 { }; class Final : public MI, public Class { };
a What is the order of constructor and destructor for the definition of a Final class object b How many Base subobjects does a Final class object contain How many Class sub-objects c Which of the following assignments is a compile-time error