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are not Destructors When the lifetime of a derived class object ends, the derived and base class destructors, if defined, are invoked automatically as well as the destructors of any member class objects For example, given the following NameQuery class object,
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NameQuery nq( "hyperion" );
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the order of destructor invocations is the following: (1) the NameQuery class destructor, (2) the string destructor for the data member _name, and (3) the Query base class destructor More generally, the order of destructor invocations for a derived class object is the reverse of its constructor order of invocation Here are our Query base and derived class destructors (these would all be declared as public members of the respective classes):
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inline Query:: ~Query(){ delete _solution; } inline NotQuery:: ~NotQuery(){ delete _op; } inline OrQuery:: ~OrQuery(){ delete _lop; delete _rop; } inline AndQuery:: ~AndQuery(){ delete _lop; delete _rop;
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There are two things to note here: (1) We do not provide an explicit NameQuery destructor Why Because there is no program-level cleanup that we need to provide Both the Query base class destructor and the _name string class destructor are invoked automatically (2) Within the derived class destructors, the delete expression is applied to a Query* pointer But it is not the Query destructor that we want invoked Rather, we need to invoke the destructor of the class type of the object actually addressed by the pointer To accomplish this, we must declare our Query base class destructor to be virtual We look at virtual destructors and virtual functions in general in the next section There is one last item we should mention An implicit assumption of our implementation is that the operands addressed within the NotQuery, OrQuery, and AndQuery class objects are allocated on the heap This is why we apply the delete operator to each operand within the respective destructors This is not an assumption enforceable at the language level, however The language does not distinguish between heap and non-heap addresses On one level, then, our implementation is unsafe As we'll see in Section 177, we've encapsulated the allocation and construction of the Query hierarchy in a UserQuery manager class This provides us with sufficient confidence, at least for our C++ Primer, that our assumption is not violated As a general-purpose library, however, further assurance is required A program-level strategy of enforcement is to overload the new and delete operators for the classes of the hierarchy One possible program-level strategy is the following: The new operators mark the objects as being allocated on the heap They then allocate the object using the new expression The delete operators check for the presence of the mark If present, they apply the delete expression to the operand
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Exercise 177
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Identify the base and derived class constructors and destructors for the chosen class hierarchy of Exercise 172 at the end of Section 171
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Exercise 178
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Reimplement the OrQuery class to derive it from an abstract UnaryQuery class
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Exercise 179
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What is wrong with the following class definition
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class Object { public: virtual ~Object(); virtual string isA(); protected: string _isA; private: Object( string s ) : _isA( s ){} };
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Exercise 1710
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Given the following base class definition,
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class ConcreteBase { public: explicit ConcreteBase( int ); virtual ostream& print( ostream& ); virtual ~Base(); static int object_count(); protected: int _id; static int _object_count; };
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(a) class C1 : public ConcreteBase { public: C1( int val ) : _id( _object_count++ ){} // }; (b) class C2 : public C1 { public: C2( int val ) : ConcreteBase( val ), C1( val ){} // }; (c) class C3 : public C2 { public:
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C3( int val ) : C2( val ), _object_count( val ){} // }; (d) class C4 : public ConcreteBase { public: C4( int val ) : ConcreteBase( _id+val ){} // };