Exercise 312 in Java

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Exercise 312
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Which, if any, of the following are in error
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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)
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char ch = "The long, winding road"; int ival = &ch; char *pc = &ival; string st( &ch ); pc = 0; (i) pc = '0'; st = pc; (j) st = &ival; ch = pc[0]; (k) ch = *pc; pc = st; (l) *pc = ival;
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Exercise 313
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Explain the difference between the following two while loops:
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while ( st++ ) ++cnt; while ( *st++ ) ++cnt;
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Exercise 314
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Consider the following two semantically equivalent programs, one using C-style character strings and the other using the string type
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// ***** C-style character string implementation ***** #include <iostream> #include <cstring> int main() { int errors = 0; const char *pc = "a very long literal string"; for ( int ix = 0; ix < 1000000; ++ix ) { int len = strlen( pc ); char *pc2 = new char[ len + 1 ]; strcpy( pc2, pc ); if ( strcmp( pc2, pc )) ++errors; delete [] pc2; } cout "C-style character strings: " errors " errors occurred\n"; } // ***** string implementation ***** #include <iostream> #include <string> int main() { int errors = 0; string str( "a very long literal string" ); for ( int ix = 0; ix < 1000000; ++ix ) { int len = strsize(); string str2 = str; if ( str != str2 ) ++errors; } cout "string class: " errors " errors occurred\n"; }
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a Explain what the programs do b As it happens, on average, the string class implementation executes twice as fast as the C-style string class The relative average execution times under the UNIX timex command are as follows:
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user user
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096 198
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# string class # C-style character string
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Did you expect that How would you account for it
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Exercise 315
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The C++ string type is an example of an object-based class abstraction Is there anything you would change about its use or set of operations as presented in this section Are there any additional operations you believe necessary Useful Explain
const Qualifier
There are two problems with the following for loop, both concerning the use of 512 as an upper bound
for ( int index = 0; index < 512; ++index ) ;
The first problem is readability What does it mean to test index against 512 What is the loop doing that is, what makes 512 matter (In this example, 512 is referred to as a magic number, one whose significance is not evident within the context of its use It is as if the number had been plucked from thin air) The second problem is maintainability Imagine that the program is 10,000 lines The use of the value 512 occurs in 4% of the code Of the 400 occurrences, 80% must be converted to 1024 To do that, we must understand which ones are to be converted and which are not Getting even one instance wrong breaks the program and requires us to go back and reexamine each use The solution to both problems is the use of an object initialized to 512 By choosing a mnemonic name, perhaps bufSize, we make the program more readable The test is now against the object rather than the literal constant:
index < bufSize
The 320 occurrences no longer need to be found and converted in case bufSize is changed Rather, only the one line that initializes bufSize requires change Not only does this approach require significantly less work, but also the likelihood of making an error is reduced significantly The cost of the solution is one additional variable The value 512 is now said to be localized
int bufSize = 512; // input buffer size // for ( int index = 0; index < bufSize; ++index ) //
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The problem with this solution is that bufSize is an lvalue It is possible for bufSize to be accidentally changed from within the program For example, here is a common programmer error:
// accidentally changes the value of bufSize if ( bufSize = 1 ) //
In C++, "=" is the assignment operator and "==" is the equality operator The programmer has accidentally changed bufSize's value to 1, and that results in a difficult-to-trace program error (Such an error is difficult to find because the programmer generally does not see the code as being wrong, and that is why many compilers issue a warning for this kind of assignment expression) The const type qualifier provides a solution It transforms an object into a constant For example,