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Define the class List and its nested class ListItem defined in Section 1310 as class templates Also provide the template definitions for the associated class members
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Member Templates
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A function or class template can be a member of an ordinary class or a member of a class template The definition of a member template looks like the definition of a template: The member definition is preceded by the keyword template, followed by a template parameter list For example:
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template <class T> class Queue { private: // class member template template <class Type> class CL { Type member; T mem; }; // public: // function member template template <class Iter> void assign( Iter first, Iter last ) { while ( ! is_empty() ) remove(); // calls Queue<T>::remove() for ( ; first != last; ++first ) add( *first ); // calls Queue<T>::add( const T & ) } };
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(Note that member templates are not supported by pre-Standard C++ implementations This feature was added to C++ to support the implementation of the abstract container types presented in 6, as we explain in the following paragraphs) The declaration of a member template has template parameters of its own For example, the class member template CL has its own template parameter named Type, and the function member template assign() has its own template parameter Iter In addition, the definition of a member template can also use the template parameters of the enclosing class template For example, the class member template CL has a data member with the type T, the template parameter of the enclosing class template Queue Declaring a member template within the class template Queue means that an instantiation of Queue contains a potentially infinite number of nested classes CL and a potentially infinite number of member functions assign() For example, the instantiation Queue<int> may contain the following nested types:
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Queue<int>::CL<char> Queue<int>::CL<string>
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Similarly, Queue<int> may contain the following member functions:
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void Queue<int>::assign( int *, int * ) void Queue<int>::assign( vector<int>::iterator, vector<int>::iterator )
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A member template follows the same access rules as other class members Because the class member template CL is a private member of the class template Queue, only member functions and friends of Queue can refer to instantiations of the class member template Because the function member template assign() is a public member, it can be used by the entire program A member template is only instantiated when it is itself used in a program For example, assign() is instantiated when used in main() as follows:
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int main() { // instantiation of Queue<int> Queue<int> qi; // instantiation of Queue<int>::assign( int *, int * ) int ai[4] = { 0, 3, 6, 9 }; qiassign( ai, ai + 4 ); // instantiation of Queue<int>::assign( vector<int>::iterator, // vector<int>::iterator) vector<int> vi( ai, ai + 4 ); qiassign( vibegin(), viend() ); }
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The function member template assign() of the class template Queue is a good example of why member templates are needed to support container types For example, given a queue of type Queue<int>, we would like to be able to add to the queue the content of any other container (the content of a list, a vector, or a simple array) with elements that are either of type int (the type of the elements in the queue) or of a type that can be converted to type int The member template assign() allows us to do just that Because any container type can be used, we program the interface of the function member template assign() to use iterators, and thus isolate its implementation from the actual container type to which the iterators refer In the function main(), the member template assign() is first instantiated with the type int*, which allows the content of an array of int to be assigned to qi The member template is then instantiated with the type vector<Int>::iterator, which allows the content of a vector of int to be assigned to qi The Container with elements that are assigned to the queue does not have to contain elements of type int Any type that can be converted to int is also valid To explain why, let's look at the definition of assign():
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template <class Iter> void assign( Iter first, Iter last ) { // remove items for the Queue for ( ; first != last; ++first ) add( *first ); }
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