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Exercise 166
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Using the Screen class template defined in Exercise 165, reimplement the input and output operators defined for class Screen in Exercise 156 of Section 152 as templates Explain your reason behind the kind of friend declarations you choose to add to the class template Screen
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Static Data Members of Class Templates
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A class template can declare static data members Each instantiation of the class template has its own set of static data members To illustrate this, let's introduce operator new() and operator delete() for the class template QueueItem To do this we will need to add two static data members to the class QueueItem:
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static QueueItem<Type> *free_list; static const unsigned QueueItem_chunk;
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The modifications to the QueueItem class template definition look like this:
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#include <cstddef> template <class Type>
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class QueueItem { // private: void *operator new( size_t ); void operator delete( void *, size_t ); // static QueueItem *free_list; static const unsigned QueueItem_chunk; // };
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Operator new() and operator delete() are declared as private to prevent the general program from creating objects of type QueueItem on the free store Only members of QueueItem and friends (such as the template Queue) can create (and delete) objects of type QueueItem on the free store The definition of operator new() might be implemented as follows:
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template <class Type> void* QueueItem<Type>::operator new( size_t size ) { QueueItem<Type> *p; if ( ! free_list ) { size_t chunk = QueueItem_chunk * size; free_list = p = reinterpret_cast< QueueItem<Type>* > ( new char[chunk] ); for ( ; p != &free_list[ QueueItem_chunk - 1 ]; ++p ) p->next = p + 1; p->next = 0; } p = free_list; free_list = free_list->next; return p; }
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Here is the template implementation of the operator delete():
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template <class Type> void QueueItem<Type>:: operator delete( void *p, size_t ) { static_cast< QueueItem<Type>* >( p )->next = free_list; free_list = static_cast< QueueItem<Type>* > ( p ); }
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All that remains to be done now is to initialize the static members free_list and QueueItem_chunk The template form for the definition of a static data member is as follows:
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/* for each QueueItem instantiation, generate the * associated free_list, initialize it to 0 */ template <class T> QueueItem<T> *QueueItem<T>::free_list = 0; /* for each QueueItem instantiation, generate the * associated QueueItem_chunk, initialize it to 24 */ template <class T> const unsigned int QueueItem<T>::QueueItem_chunk = 24;
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The template definition of a static data member must appear outside the class template definition For this reason, the template definition starts with the keyword template followed by the class template parameter list <class T> The name of the static data member is prefixed by QueueItem<T>::, which indicates that the member belongs to the class template QueueItem The static data member definitions are added to the header file Queueh These definitions must be included in the files in which instantiations of the static data members are used (We look at why we decided to do this, and at the related topic of template compilation model, in Section 168) A static data member is instantiated from the template definition only if it is used in a program A static member of a class template is itself a template The template definition for the static data member does not cause any memory to be allocated Memory is only allocated for particular instantiations of the static data member Each static data member instantiation corresponds to a class template instantiation An instantiation of a static data member, then, is always referred to through a particular class template instantiation For example:
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// error: int ival0 int ival1 int ival2
QueueItem is not an actual instantiation = QueueItem::QueueItem_chunk; = QueueItem<string>::QueueItem_chunk; // ok = QueueItem<int>::QueueItem_chunk; // ok
Exercise 167 Using operator new(), operator delete(), and their associated static members screenChunk and freeStore defined in Section 158, implement these operators and static members for the class template Screen defined in Exercise 166