// error: which template instantiation in Java

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// error: which template instantiation
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An instantiation of the class template Queue can be used by the general program wherever a nontemplate class type can be used:
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// the return type and two parameters are instantiations of Queue extern Queue< complex<double> > foo( Queue< complex<double> > &, Queue< complex<double> > & ); // pointer to member function of an instantiation of Queue bool (Queue<double>::*pmf)() = 0; // explicit cast of 0 to a pointer to an instantiation of Queue Queue<char*> *pqc = static_cast< Queue<char*>* > ( 0 );
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Objects of a class type that is an instantiation of the class template Queue are declared and used exactly the same as objects of a nontemplate class type:
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extern Queue<double> eqd; Queue<int> *pqi = new Queue<int>; Queue<int> aqi[1024]; int main() { int ix; if ( ! pqi->is_empty() ) ix = pqi->remove(); // for ( ix = 0; ix < 1024; ++ix ) eqd[ ix ]add( ix ); // }
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A template declaration or definition can refer to a class template or to an instantiation of a class template:
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// function template declaration template <class Type> void bar( Queue<Type> &, // refers to generic template Queue<double> & // and to template instantiation )
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However, outside the context of a template definition, only class template instantiations can be used For example, a nontemplate function must always specify which particular instantiation of the class template Queue it uses:
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void foo( Queue<int> &qi ) { Queue<int> *pqi = &qi; // }
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A class template is instantiated only when the name of an instantiation is used in a context that requires a class definition to exist Not
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all uses of a class require the class definition to be known For example, it is not necessary to know the definition of a class before pointers and references to a class can be declared For example:
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class Matrix; Matrix *pm; // ok: definition of class Matrix not needed void inverse( Matrix & ); // ok too
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Therefore, declaring pointers and references to a class template instantiation do not cause the class template to be instantiated (We should mention here that some implementations supporting pre-Standard C++ instantiate a template the first time the name of an instantiation is encountered in the program text) For example, the following function foo() declares a pointer and a reference to the class template instantiation Queue<int> However, these declarations do not cause the template Queue to be instantiated:
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// Queue<int> is not instantiated for its uses in foo() void foo( Queue<int> &qi ) { Queue<int> *pqi = &qi; // }
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A class definition is needed when an object of this class type is defined For example, the definition of obj1 in the following example is an error This object definition requires that the size of Matrix be known for the compiler to allocate the right amount of storage for obj1:
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class Matrix; Matrix obj1; // error: class Matrix is not defined class Matrix { }; Matrix obj2; // ok
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A class template is therefore instantiated when an object is defined with a type that is a class template instantiation In the following example, the definition of the object qi causes the template Queue<int> to be instantiated:
Queue<int> qi; // Queue<int> is instantiated
The definition of the class Queue<int> becomes known to the compiler at this point, called the point of instantiation of the class Queue<int> Similarly, if a pointer or reference refers to a class template instantiation, only when examining the object to which such a pointer or reference refers is the class template instantiated In the function foo() defined earlier, Queue<int> is instantiated if the pointer pqi is dereferenced, if qi is used to obtain the value of the object to which it refers, or if either pqi or qi are used to access the data members or member functions of Queue<int>:
void foo( Queue<int> &qi ) {
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