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the array version of the delete expression must be used (Array delete expressions are discussed in Section 84) One last thing to note about our assignment operator: The return type of the assignment operator is a reference to the String class Why would we declare this assignment operator to return a reference For built-in types, assignment operators can be chained together as follows:
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// chain of assignment operators int iobj, jobj; iobj = jobj = 63;
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Assignment operators associate right to left The order of the previous assignments is as follows:
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iobj = (jobj = 63);
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We would like to preserve this behavior for assignments to objects of our String class, such that the following, for example, is supported:
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String verb, noun; verb = noun = "count";
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The first assignment in this chain calls the assignment operator for const char* defined earlier The type of the result of this assignment must be such that it can be used as an argument for the String class copy assignment operator For this reason, even though the parameter of the assignment operator is const char*, its return type is a reference to the String class Assignment operators can be overloaded In our String class, the set of overloaded assignment operators is the following:
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// overloaded set of assignment operators String& operator=( const String & ); String& operator=( const char * );
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There may be an assignment operator for every type that must be assigned to a String object However, every assignment operator must be defined as a class member function
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Operator [ ]
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A subscript operator, operator[](), can be defined for classes that represent a container abstraction and from which individual elements are retrieved Our String class, the IntArray class presented in 2, or the vector class template defined in the C++ standard library are examples of container classes for which it makes sense to declare a subscript operator A subscript operator must be defined as a class member function Users of our class String need to have both read and write access to the individual characters of the _string class member We want to support the following use for String class objects:
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String entry( "extravagant" ); String mycopy; for ( int ix = 0; ix < entrysize(); ++ix ) mycopy[ ix ] = entry[ ix ];
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The subscript operator must be able to appear both on the right- and the left-hand side of an assignment operator To appear on the lefthand side, its return value must be an lvalue This is achieved by specifying the return type as a reference:
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#include <cassert> inline char& String::operator[]( int elem ) const { assert( elem >= 0 && elem < _size ); return _string[ elem ]; }
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The return value of the subscript operator is the lvalue of the indexed element This is why it can appear on the left-hand side of an assignment For example, the following assigns a character value to the zero element of color_string:
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Notice that the subscript operator is defined to perform bound checking on the index value it receives Here we decided to use the C library function assert() to perform this check We could instead throw an exception to indicate that elem has a negative value or a value greater than the size of the C-style character string to which _string refers (Exception handling and throw expressions are discussed in 11)
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Operator ()
The function call operator can be overloaded for objects of class type We have already seen a use of this overloaded operator when we saw function objects in Section 123 If a class type is defined to represent an operation, the function call operator can be overloaded for this class type to invoke this operation For example, the class absInt is defined to encapsulate the operation of setting a value of type int to its absolute value:
class absInt { public: int operator()( int val ) { int result = val < 0 val : val; return result; } };
An overloaded operator() must be declared as a member function Its parameter list may have any number of parameters The
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