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bool operator==( const String & ) const; bool operator==( const char * ) const;
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We look at this operator in more detail in the next subsection Overloaded operators allow objects of class type to be used with the operators defined in 4, allowing the manipulation of objects of class type to be as intuitive as that of objects of built-in types For example, if we want to define an operation to support the concatenation of two objects of type String, we could decide to implement this new operation as a member function named concat() But why choose the name concat() and not append(), for example Although the name chosen is both logical and mnemonic, users may forget the exact name we chose It is often easier to remember the name of an operation if we define it as an overloaded operator Instead of concat(), for example, we prefer to name the new String operation operator+=() This new operator can be used as follows:
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#include "Stringh" int main() { String name1 = "Sherlock"; String name2 = "Holmes"; name1 += " "; name1 += name2; if ( ! ( name1 == "Sherlock Holmes" ) ) cout "concatenation did not work\n"; }
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An overloaded operator is declared in the class body in the same way as an ordinary member function, except that its name consists of the keyword operator followed by one of a large subset of the predefined C++ operators (see Table 15 1) operator+=() might be declared as folows in class String,
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class String { public: // overloaded set of += operators String& operator+=( const String & ); String& operator+=( const char * ); // private: // };
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and defined as follows:
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#include <cstring> inline String& String::operator+=( const String &rhs ) { // if the String referred to by rhs is not empty if ( rhs_string ) { String tmp( *this ); // create a storage area large enough
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// to contain the concatenated Strings _size += rhs_size; delete[] _string; _string = new char[ _size + 1 ]; // first copy original String into new storage location // then append the String referred to by rhs strcpy( _string, tmp_string ); strcpy( _string + tmp_size, rhs_string ); } return *this; } inline String& String::operator+=( const char *s ) { // if s is not a null pointer if ( s ) { String tmp( *this ); // create a storage area large enough // to contain the result of the concatenation _size += strlen( s ); delete[] _string; _string = new char[ _size + 1 ]; // first copy original String into new storage location // then append the C-style string referred to by s strcpy( _string, tmp_string ); strcpy( _string + tmp_size, s ); } return *this; }
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Class Member versus Nonmember Let's look at our String class equality operators in a little bit more detail The first operator allows us to compare for equality two objects of class String, and the second operator allows us to compare an object of class String with a C-style character string For example:
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#include "Stringh" int main() { String flower; // set flower to something if ( flower == "lily" ) // ok // else if ( "tulip" == flower ) // error // }
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The first use of the equality operator in main() calls the String class overloaded operator==(const char *) However, the second use of the equality operator results in a compiler error How can this be
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The problem is that an overloaded operator that is a class member is only considered when the operator is used with a left operand that is an object of class type Because the left operand is not of class type, the compiler tries to find a built-in operator that can take a left operand that is a C-style character string and a right operand that is of class String Of course, no such operator exists and the compiler issues an error message for the second use of the equality operator in main() But, you will say, it is possible to create an object of class String from a C-style character string using the class constructor Why doesn't the compiler implicitly do the following conversion:
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