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indicate the invocation of a destructor on a class object Rather, the compiler simply inserts the invocation subsequent to the last use of the object but before termination of the associated scope Global class objects have their constructors and destructors applied during the initialization and cleanup phases of program execution Although such global objects are well-behaved if used within the file in which they are defined, their safe and efficient use becomes a challenging design problem within C++ when referenced across separately compiled files4">[4]
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See the article by Jerry Schwarz in [LIPPMAN96b] for the original discussion of the problem and the still most wide-spread solution
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A destructor is not invoked when either a reference or a pointer to a class object goes out of scope (the object referred to has not terminated its lifetime) The language guards internally against applying operator delete to a pointer addressing no object, and so we do not need to write code to guard against that:
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// unnecessary -- carried out implicitly by compiler if ( pact != 0 ) delete pact;
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Whenever an individual heap object is deleted within a function, it is preferable to use an auto_ptr class object rather than an actual pointer (see Section 84 for a discussion of auto_ptr) This is particularly true with heap class objects when the failure to apply the delete expression, such as in the event of an exception being thrown, results not only in a memory leak but in the destructor not being called For example, here is our program example rewritten to use an auto_ptr (it's modified slightly because an auto_ptr object doesn't support the notion of being explicitly reset to address another object, apart from assigning a second
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auto_ptr to it): #include <memory> #include "Accounth" Account global( "James Joyce" ); int main() { Account local( "Anna Livia Plurabelle", 10000 ); Account &loc_ref = global; auto_ptr<Account> pact( new Account( "Stephen Dedalus" )); { Account local_too( "Stephen Hero" ); } // auto_ptr object destroyed here }
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Explicit Destructor Invocation In some program situations it is necessary to invoke the destructor explicitly on a particular class object This comes up most often in conjunction with placement operator new (see Section 84 for a discussion) Let's look at an example When we write
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char *arena = new char[ sizeof Image ];
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in effect we've allocated raw heap storage of a size equivalent to a class object of type Image The associated memory is uninitialized and is filled with the random bit seq-uence of its previous use When we write
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Image *ptr = new (arena) Image( "Quasimodo" );
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no new memory is allocated Rather, ptr is assigned the address associated with arena Through ptr, however, the memory is interpreted as an Image class object Moreover, although no memory is allocated, the constructor is applied to the existing memory In effect, placement operator new allows us to construct a class object at a specific, pre-allocated memory address When we finish with Quasimodo's image, we may wish to operate on an image of Esmerelda at the same memory location addressed by arena On the one hand, we know exactly how to do that:
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Image *ptr = new (arena) Image( "Esmerelda" );
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The problem is that this overwrites our image of Quasimodo, which we've modified and wish to store on disk Ordinarily, we accomplish this through the Image class destructor, but if we apply operator delete
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// no good: deletes memory as well as invokes destructor delete ptr;
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then in addition to invoking the destructor, we delete the underlying heap memory as well, which is not what we wish Rather, we may explicitly invoke the Image destructor
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ptr->~Image();
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leaving the underlying memory available to a subsequent invocation of placement operator new It is worth noting that although ptr and arena address the same heap memory, applying the delete operator to arena
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// no destructor invoked delete arena;
does not result in the Image destructor being invoked because arena is of type char* and, recall, the compiler only calls the destructor if the pointer in the delete expression points to a class type with a destructor Potential for Program Code Bloat An inline destructor can be an unsuspected source of program code bloat because it is inserted at each exit point within a function for each active local class object For example, in the following code fragment
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