string( _height * _width ) current Screen position number of Screen rows number of Screen columns in Java

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string( _height * _width ) current Screen position number of Screen rows number of Screen columns
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Because we have decided to use a string for the internal representation of a Screen class object, the data member _screen is of type string _cursor is an index into the string data member and it refers to the current Screen position Its type is
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which is a portable type to hold the value of an index into a string (Section 68 introduces size_type) As with variable declarations, it is not necessary to declare the two members of type short separately The following definition is an equivalent definition for Screen:
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class Screen { /* * _screen addresses a string of size _height * _width; * _cursor points to current Screen position; * _height and _width refer to number of rows and columns */ string _screen; string::size_type _cursor; short _height, _width; };
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A class data member can be of any type For example:
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class StackScreen { int topStack;
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void (*handler)(); // pointer to function vector<Screen> stack; // vector of classes };
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The data members seen thus far in this subsection are nonstatic data members A class can also have static data members Static data members have special properties, which we examine in Section 135 As we have seen, data member declarations look very much like variable declarations in block scope or in namespace scope However, except for a minor exception with static data members, a data member cannot be initialized explicitly in the class body For example:
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class First { int memi = 0; // error double memd = 00; // error };
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Class data members are initialized using the class constructor Class constructors were briefly introduced in Section 23 We discuss constructors and class initialization in detail in 14 Member Functions Users will want to perform a wide range of operations on objects of type Screen A set of cursor movement operations is required The ability to test and set portions of the screen must be provided The user should be able to copy one Screen object to another The user should also be able to set the actual dimensions of the screen at run-time This set of operations can be implemented with class member functions The member functions of a class are declared inside the class body A member function declaration consists of a declaration that looks just like a function declaration that appears in namespace scope (Recall that the global scope is also a namespace scope Section 82 discusses global functions Section 85 discusses namespaces) For example:
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class Screen { public: void home(); void move( int, int ); char get(); char get( int, int ); bool checkRange( int, int ); // };
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The definition of a member function can also be placed inside the class body For example:
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class Screen { public: // definitions for home() and get() void home() { _cursor = 0; }
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char get() // };
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{ return _screen[_cursor]; }
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The function home() positions the cursor at the top left-hand corner of the screen The function get() returns the character value of the current cursor position Member functions are distinguished from ordinary functions by the following properties:
Member functions are declared within the scope of their class This means that the name of a member function is not visible outside the scope of its class A member function is referred to using the dot or arrow member access operator as follows:
ptrScreen->home(); myScreenhome();
Section 139 considers class scope in detail
Member functions have full access privileges to both the public and private members of the class whereas, in general, ordinary functions have access only to the public members of the class Of course, the member functions of one class, in general, have no access privileges to the members of another class
A member function can be an overloaded function (Overloaded functions are presented in 9) However, a member function only overloads other member functions of its own class A class member function is unrelated to, and therefore cannot overload, functions declared either in other classes or in namespace scope The declaration of get(int,int), for example, only overloads the get() member function previously declared in class Screen:
class Screen { public: // declarations of overloaded member function get() char get() { return _screen[_cursor]; } char get( int, int ); // };
We look at class member functions in more detail in Section 133 Member Access It often happens that the internal representation of a class type is modified subsequent to its initial use by various programs For example, imagine that a study is conducted of users of our Screen class, and that it is determined that all the Screen class objects defined are of the dimension 80 24 In this case it may be desirable to implement a less flexible but more efficient representation for the Screen class, as follows: