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// ---- userC ---#include <primerh> int ai[4] = { 12, 8, 73, 45 }; int main() { int size = sizeof(ai) / sizeof(ai[0]); // error: the function min() is not found min( &ai[0], size ); using cplusplus_primer::min; // using declaration // ok: refers to min() in namespace cplusplus_primer min( &ai[0], size ); }
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What happens if our program uses a template that is defined in a namespace and we want to provide a specialization for it (Template explicit specializations are introduced in Section 106) For example, we want to use the template min() defined in namespace cplusplus_primer to find the minimum value in an array of objects of type SmallInt However, we realize that the template definition provided in namespace cplusplus_primer does not quite work The comparison in the template definition looks like this:
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if ( array[i] < min_val )
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This statement compares two class objects of type SmallInt using the less-than (<) operator This operator cannot apply to two class objects unless an overloaded operator<() is defined for the class SmallInt (We will see how to define overloaded operators in 15) Let's assume that we want to define a specialization for the min() function template so that it uses a function named compareLess() to find the minimum value in an array of SmallInt class objects Here is a declaration of our compareLess() function:
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// comparison function for SmallInt objects // returns true if parm1 is less than parm2 bool compareLess( const SmallInt &parm1, const SmallInt &parm2 );
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What would the definition of this function look like To answer this, we need to look at the definition of our class SmallInt in more detail Our SmallInt class allows us to define objects that can hold the same range of values as an 8-bit unsigned char; that is, 0255 Its additional functionality is that it catches underflow and overflow errors Except for that, we wish for it to behave in the same way as an unsigned char The definition of the class SmallInt looks like this:
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class SmallInt { public: SmallInt( int ival ) : value( ival ) { } friend bool compareLess( const SmallInt &, const SmallInt & ); private: int value; // data member };
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There are a few things in this class definition that we should discuss First, the class has one private data member, value It is this data member that stores the value of an object of type SmallInt The class also contains a constructor:
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// constructor for class SmallInt SmallInt( int ival ) : value( ival ) { }
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This constructor has one parameter, ival The only action it performs is to initialize the class data member value with the value of its parameter ival Now we can answer our earlier question How is our function compareLess() defined The function will compare the value data members of its two SmallInt parameters, as follows:
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// returns true if parm1 is less than parm2 bool compareLess( const SmallInt &parm1, const SmallInt &parm2 ) { return parm1value < parm2value; }
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Notice, however, that the data member value is a private data member of the SmallInt class How can this global function refer to the private data members without breaking the encapsulation of the class SmallInt and without causing a compile-time error If you look at the definition of the SmallInt class, you will notice that the class definition declared the global function compareLess() as a friend When a function is a friend of a class, it can refer to the class private members, as our function compareLess() does (Friends of classes are looked at further in Section 152) We are now ready to define our template specialization for min() It uses the compareLess() function as follows:
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// specialization of min() for arrays of SmallInt objects template<> SmallInt min<SmallInt>( SmallInt* array, int size ) { SmallInt min_val = array[0]; for ( int i = 1; i < size; ++i ) // comparison uses our compareLess() function if ( compareLess( array[i], min_val ) ) min_val = array[i]; print( "Minimum value found: " ); print( min_val ); return min_val; }
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Where should we declare this specialization How about this:
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// ---- primerh ---namespace cplusplus_primer { // template definition hidden in a namespace template<class Type> Type min( Type* array, int size ) { /* */ } } // ---- userh ---class SmallInt { /* */ }; void print( const SmallInt & );
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