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arguments of type double
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template <class Type> Type max( Type, Type ) { } // ordinary function double max( double, double );
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The following are three calls to max() Can you tell which instance is invoked for each call
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int main() { int ival; double dval; float fd; // some values are assigned to ival, dval, and fd max( 0, ival ); max( 025, dval ); max( 0, fd ); }
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Let's look at each call in turn
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max(0,ival): The two arguments are both of type int Two candidate functions exist for this call: the function template instantiation max(int,int) and the ordinary function max(double,double) The function template instantiation is an exact match for the function arguments It is the function that is invoked max(025,dval): The two arguments are both of type double Two candidate functions exist for this call: the function template instantiation max(double,double) and the ordinary function max(double,double) The call is therefore ambiguous because it matches both functions exactly Rule 3b indicates that the ordinary function is selected in this case max(0,fd): The arguments are of type int and float, respectively Only one candidate function exists for this call: the ordinary function max(double,double) Template argument deduction fails, because the template argument deduced for Type from the two function arguments is not a single type; no template instantiation is therefore entered in the set of candidate functions The ordinary function is a viable function, because there exist type conversions that can convert the function arguments to the type of the corresponding function parameters The ordinary function is selected If the ordinary function were not declared, the call would be an error
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What if we had defined a second ordinary function for max() For example:
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template <class T> T max( T, T ) { } // two ordinary functions char max( char, char ); double max( double, double );
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Is the resolution of the third call any different Yes
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int main() { float fd; // resolved to which function max( 0, fd ); }
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Rule 3b states that, because the call is ambiguous, only the ordinary functions are considered Neither of these functions is selected as the best viable function, because the type conversions on the arguments are equally bad for both functions: both arguments require a standard conversion to match the corresponding parameter in either of the viable functions The call is therefore ambiguous and is flagged as an error by the compiler Exercise 1011 Let's return to the example presented earlier:
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template <class Type> Type max( Type, Type ) { } double max( double, double ); int main() { int ival; double dval; float fd; max( 0, ival ); max( 025, dval ); max( 0, fd ); }
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The following function template specialization is added to the set of declarations in global scope:
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template <> char max<char>( char, char ) { }
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Revisit the function calls in main() and list the candidate functions and list the viable functions for each calls Suppose that the following function call is added within main() To which function does the call resolve Why
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int main() { // max (0, 'J' ); }
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Exercise 1012 Suppose we have the following set of template definitions and specializations and variable and function declarations:
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int i; unsigned int ui; char str[24]; int ia[24]; template <class T> T calc( T*, int ); template <class T> T calc( T, T ); template<> char calc( char*, int ); double calc( double, double );
Identify which, if any, template instantiation or function is invoked for each of the following calls For each call, list the candidate functions, list the viable functions, and explain why the best viable function is selected
(a) calc( str, 24 ); (b) calc( ia, 24 ); (c) calc( ia[0], i );
(d) calc( i, ui ); (e) calc( ia, ui ); (f) calc( &i, i );