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4 If the same template parameter is found in more than one function parameter, the template argument deduced from each corresponding function argument must be the same Exercise 104 Name two type conversions allowed on function arguments involved in template argument deduction Exercise 105 Given the following template definitions
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template <class Type min3( template <class Type min5(
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Type> const Type* array, int size ) { /* */ } Type> Type p1,Type p2 ) { /* */ }
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which ones of the following calls, if any, are errors Why
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double dobj1, dobj2; float fobj1, fobj2; char cobj1, cobj2; int ai[5] = { 511, 16, 8, 63, 34 }; (a) min5( cobj2, 'c' ); (b) min5( dobj1, fobj1 ); (c) min3( ai, cobj1 );
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Explicit Template Arguments
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In some situations, it is not possible to deduce the type of the template arguments As we saw in the previous section with the example of the function template min5(), if template argument deduction deduces two different types for the same template parameter, the compiler issues an error to indicate that template argument deduction failed In such situations, it is necessary to override the template argument deduction mechanism and explicitly specify the template arguments to be used The template arguments are explicitly specified in a comma-separated list, bracketed by the less-than (<) and greater-than (>) tokens, following the name of the function template instantiation For example, assuming that the template argument for T in our earlier use of min5() is intended to be unsigned int, the call to the function template instantiation min5() can be rewritten as follows:
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// min5( unsigned int, unsigned int ) instantiated min5< unsigned int >( ui, 1024 );
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In this case, the template argument list <unsigned int> explicitly specifies the type of the template argument Because the template argument is known, the function call is no longer an error Notice that in the call to the function min5(), the second function argument is 1024, which has type int Because the type of the second function parameter is fixed to unsigned int by the explicit template argument, the second function argument is converted
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to the type unsigned int using an integral standard conversion We saw in the previous section that only a limited set of type conversions is allowed on function arguments used to deduce template arguments The integral standard conversion int-to-unsigned int is not one of the conversions allowed But when the template arguments are explicitly specified, there is no need to deduce the template arguments The types of the function parameters are thus fixed When the template arguments are explicitly specified, any implicit type conversion can be applied to convert a function argument to the type of the corresponding function parameter In addition to allowing type conversions on function arguments, explicit template arguments provide solutions to other programming problems Consider the following problem We wish to define a function template called sum() so that a function instantiated from this template would return a value of a type that is large enough to contain the sum of two values of any two types passed in any order How can we do that How should we specify sum()'s return type
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// T or U as the return type template <class T, class U> sum( T, U );
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In our case, the answer is to use neither parameter Using either parameter is bound to fail at some point:
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char ch; unsigned int ui; // neither T nor U works as return type sum( ch, ui ); // ok: U sum( T, U ); sum( ui, ch ); // ok: T sum( T, U );
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A solution is to introduce a third template parameter simply to designate the function template return type
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// T1 does not appear in the function template parameter list template <class T1, class T2, class T3> T1 sum( T2, T3 );
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Because the return type might be a type different from the types of the function arguments, T1 is not mentioned in the function parameter list This is a potential problem because the template argument for T1 cannot be deduced from the function arguments However, if we provide explicit template arguments in a call to an instantiation of sum(), we will avoid the compiler error indicating that the template argument for T1 cannot be deduced For example:
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typedef unsigned int ui_type; ui_type calc( char ch, ui_type ui ) { // // error: T1 cannot be deduced ui_type loc1 = sum( ch, ui ); // ok: template arguments explicitly specified // T1 and T3 are unsigned int, T2 is char ui_type loc2 = sum< ui_type, char, ui_type >( ch, ui ); }
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