Lvalue Transformation -> Promotion or Standard Conversion -> Qualifications Conversion in Java

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Lvalue Transformation -> Promotion or Standard Conversion -> Qualifications Conversion
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The term lvalue transformation refers to the first three conversions described under the exact match category in Section 92: lvalue-torvalue transformation, array-to-pointer conversion, and function-to-pointer conversion A conversion sequence is a sequence of zero or one lvalue transformation followed by zero or one promotion or zero or one standard conversion followed by zero or one qualification conversion At most, one of each conversion is applied to convert an argument to the type of a corresponding parameter This conversion sequence is called a standard conversion sequence There exists another kind of conversion sequence called a userdefined conversion sequence A user-defined conversion sequence involves a class member conversion function Class member conversion functions and user-defined conversion sequences are described in 15 What are the conversion sequences on the arguments in the following example
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namespace libs_R_us { int max( int, int ); double max( double, double ); } // using declaration using libs_R_us::max; void func() { char c1, c2; max( c1, c2 ); // calls libs_R_us::max( int, int ) }
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The arguments in the call to max() are of type char The conversion sequence on the arguments to call the function libs_R_us::max(int,int) is as follows: 1 Because the arguments are passed by value, an lvalue-to-rvalue conversion extracts the value from the arguments c1 and c2 2 A promotion converts the arguments from char to int The conversion sequence on the arguments to call the function libs_R_us::max(double, double) is as follows: 1 An lvalue-to-rvalue conversion extracts the value from the arguments c1 and c2 2 A floating-integral standard conversion converts the arguments from char to double The rank of the first conversion sequence is promotion (the worse conversion in the sequence), whereas the rank of the second conversion sequence is standard conversion Because a promotion is better than a standard conversion, the function libs_R_us::max(int, int) is selected as the best viable function, or best match function, for the call If by ranking the conversion sequences on the arguments it is impossible to identify one viable function as matching the types of the arguments better than the other viable functions, the call is ambiguous In the following example, both instances of calc() require the following conversion sequence: 1 An lvalue-to-rvalue conversion to extract the value from the arguments i and j 2 A standard conversion to convert the arguments to the corresponding parameter Because each conversion sequence is as good as the other, the call is ambiguous:
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int i, j; extern long calc( long, long ); extern double calc( double, double ); void jj() { // error: ambiguous, no "best" match calc( i, j ); }
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A qualification conversion a conversion that adds a const or volatile qualifier to the type to which a pointer points has the
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rank of an exact match However, if two conversion sequences are identical except that one has an additional qualification conversion at the end of its sequence, then the conversion sequence without the additional qualification conversion is the better conversion sequence For example:
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void reset( int * ); void reset( const int * ); int* pi; int main() { reset( pi ); // sequence without qualification conversion // better : reset( int * ) selected return 0; }
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The standard conversion sequence applied on the argument to call the first candidate function reset(int*) is an exact match; it requires only an lvalue-to-rvalue conversion to extract the value of the argument For the second candidate function reset(const int *), an lvalue-to-rvalue conversion is also applied, followed by a qualification conversion to convert the resulting value from a pointer to int to a pointer to const int Both of these sequences are exact matches, but the preceding function call is not ambiguous Because both conversion sequences are identical except for the additional qualification conversion at the end of the second conversion sequence, the sequence without the qualification conversion is considered a better match Thus, the viable function reset(int*) is the best viable function Here is another example in which the qualification conversion influences which conversion sequence is selected:
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int extract( void * ); int extract( const void * ); int* pi; int main() { extract( pi ); // extract( void * ) selected return 0; }
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There are two viable functions for the call: extract(void*) and extract(const void*) The conversion sequence applied to call the first viable function extract(void*) consists of an lvalue-to-rvalue conversion to extract the value of the argument, followed by a standard pointer conversion that converts this value from a pointer to int to a pointer to void The conversion sequence applied to call the second viable function extract(const void*) is identical except for the additional qualification conversion that converts the result from a pointer to void to a pointer to const void Because the two conversion sequences are identical except that the second conversion sequence has an additional qualification conversion at the end of its sequence, the first conversion sequence wis selected as the better conversion sequence The function extract(void*) is selected as the best viable function for the argument The const or volatile qualifiers also affect how the initialization of a reference parameter is ranked As is the case for conversion sequences, if two reference initializations are identical except for the fact that one adds an additional const or volatile qualifier, the reference initialization without the additional qualification is a better reference initialization for the purpose of function overload resolution For example:
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#include <vector> void manip( vector<int> & ); void manip( const vector<int> & );
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