Exercise 93 in Java

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Exercise 93
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Explain the effect of the second declaration in each one of the following sets of declarations
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(a) int calc( int, int ); int calc( const int, const int ); (b) int get(); double get(); (c) int *reset( int * ); double *reset( double * ); (d) extern "C" int compute( int *, int ); extern "C" double compute( double *, double );
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Exercise 94
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Which ones of the following initializations, if any, are errors Why
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(a) void reset( int * ); void (*pf)( void * ) = reset; (b) int calc( int, int ); int (*pf1)( int, int ) = calc; (c) extern "C" int compute( int *, int ); int (*pf3)( int*, int ) = compute; (d) void (*pf4)( const matrix & ) = 0;
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The Three Steps of Overload Resolution
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Function overload resolution is the process by which a function call is associated with one function in a set of overloaded functions It is the process by which, in the presence of many functions with the same name, one function is selected for the arguments specified in the function call Consider this example:
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T t1, t2; void f( int, int ); void f( float, float ); int main() { f( t1,t2 ); return 0; }
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Here, function overload resolution will determine, given a type T, whether the call f(t1,t2) will call the function f(int,int) or the function f(float,float), whether the call is in error because none of these functions can be called with the arguments t1 and t2, or whether the call is ambiguous because the arguments specified in the call match both functions equally well Function overload resolution is one of the most complex aspects of the C++ programming language Beginner C++ programmers may be overwhelmed at first trying to understand all of its details For this reason, this section presents only an overview of how function overload resolution proceeds and gives you a feel for what happens For those of you wanting to know more, the following two sections describe in greater detail the process of function overload resolution There are three steps in the process of function overload resolution We will use the following example to illustrate these three steps:
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void f(); void f( int ); void f( double, double = 34 ); void f( char*, char* ); int main() { f( 56 ); return 0; }
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The steps of function overload resolution are the following: 1 Identify the set of overloaded functions considered for the call and identify the properties of the argument list in the function call 2 Select the functions from the set of overloaded functions that can be called with the arguments specified in the call, given the number of arguments and their types 3 Select the function that best matches the call We will look at each step in turn
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The first step of function overload resolution identifies the set of overloaded functions considered for the call The functions in this set are called candidate functions A candidate function is a function with the same name as the function that is called and for which a declaration is visible at the point of the call In the example, there are four candidate functions: f(), f(int), f(double, double), and f(char*, char*) The first step of function overload resolution also identifies the properties of the argument list in the function call, that is, the number of arguments and their types In the example, the argument list consists of one argument of type double The second step of function overload resolution selects the functions from the set of candidate functions found in step 1 that can be called with the arguments specified in the call The functions thus selected are called the viable functions A viable function has the same number of parameters as there are arguments in the argument list in the call, or a viable function has more parameters than there are arguments in the argument list in the call and each additional parameter has an associated default argument For a function to be viable, there must exist conversions that can convert each argument in the argument list to the type of its corresponding parameter in the function parameter list In the example, there are two viable functions that can be called with the argument list specified
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f(int) is a viable function because it has only one parameter and because a conversion exists that can convert the argument of type double to the parameter of type int f(double, double) is a viable function because a default argument is provided for the function's second parameter and its first parameter is of type double, which matches exactly the type of the argument
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If the second step of the function overload resolution process finds no viable function that can be called with the given argument list, then the function call is in error There is no function that matches the call, and we say that it is a no match situation The third step of function overload resolution consists of selecting the function that matches the function call the best This function is called the best viable function (also often called the best match function) To select this function, the conversions used to convert the arguments to the types of the corresponding viable function parameters are ranked The best viable function is the function for which the following apply 1 The conversions applied to the arguments are no worse than the conversions necessary to call any other viable function 2 The conversions on some arguments are better than the conversions necessary for the same arguments when calling the other viable functions Type conversions and their ranking are examined in greater detail in Section 93 We will here briefly examine the ranking of the conversions in the example When the viable function f(int) is considered, the conversion applied to the argument of type double to convert it to type int is a standard conversion When the viable function f(double, double) is considered, the argument of type double is an exact match for the corresponding parameter Because an exact match is better than a standard conversion because not to do a conversion is better than to do any conversion the best viable function selected for the call is f(double, double) If the third step of function overload resolution finds no best viable function, then the function call is ambiguous; that is, the call does not match any viable function better than any other As indicated earlier, more details on the steps of function overload resolution can be found in Section 94 Function overload resolution also applies when an overloaded class member function is called or when an overloaded operator function is called Section 1510 discusses the rules for function overload resolution with class member functions Section 1511 discusses the rules for function overload resolution with overload operators Function overload resolution must also take into account functions generated from function templates Section 108 discusses how function templates influence function overload resolution Exercise 95
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