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// report it and exit } }
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The -d option turns on debugging To handle that, we set an object
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bool debug_on = false;
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to true:
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case 'd': debug_on = true; break;
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Our program can contain code such as the following:
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if ( debug_on ) display_state_elements( obj );
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The -v option displays the version number of the program and then exits:
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case 'v': cout program_name "::" program_version endl; return 0;
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The -h option generates the program's usage() message and then exits (the exit is done within usage()):
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case 'h': // no break necessary: usage() exits usage();
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The -o option indicates that a user-specified output file name follows Similarly, the -l option indicates that a limit value follows How should we handle that If the hyphen is not present, we know that we have one of either a limit value, a user-specified output file, or the name of a file to be processed To distinguish between the three possibilities, we set objects that remember internal states to true
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// if true, next argument is output file bool ofile_on = false; // if true, next argument is limit value bool limit_on = false;
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within the options handling portion of our implementation:
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case 'l': limit_on = true; break; case 'o': ofile_on = true; break;
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When we encounter an argument that does not begin with a hyphen, we test the state objects to determine what the option represents:
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// either a limit_value, output_file, or file_name default: { // ofile_on set if -o seen if ( ofile_on ) { // handle output_file // turn off ofile_on } else if ( limit_on ) { // if -l seen // handle limit_value // turn off limit_on } else { // handle file_name } }
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If the argument is an output file, we reset ofile_on to false and tuck away the file's name:
if ( ofile_on ) { ofile_on = false; ofile = pchar; }
If the argument is a limit value, we need to transform the C-style character string into a numeric representation We do that using the atoi() standard library function; it takes a C-style character string as an argument and returns an int (there is also an atof() that returns a float value) To use atoi(), we include the ctypeh header file We must also make sure that the limit value is nonnegative and must reset limit_on to false:
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file:///F|/WinDDK/resources/CPPPrimer/c++primerhtm
// int limit; else if ( limit_on ) { limit_on = false; limit = atoi( pchar ); if ( limit < 0 ) { cerr program_name "::" program_version " : error: " "negative value for limit\n\n"; usage( -2 ); } }
Otherwise, if neither state object is true, we have a file to open for processing We store its name in a string vector:
else file_namespush_back( string( pchar ));
When we're processing the command line, perhaps the most significant aspect of the design lies in the way we choose to handle invalid options For example, we make specifying a negative limit value a fatal error That may or may not be appropriate Alternatively, we could have recognized it as out of bounds, alerted the user, and reset the value to 0 or some meaningful default value Two weaknesses in our implementation become apparent when our users foul up the spacing of our command options For example, neither of the following is handled
prog - d data01 prog -oout_file data01
(We leave both as exercises at the end of this section) Here is the full implementation of our program (We've added print statements to illustrate the progress of its processing)
#include <iostream> #include <string> #include <vector> #include <ctypeh> const char *const program_name = "comline"; const char *const program_version = "version 001 (08/07/97)"; inline void usage( int exit_value = 0 ) { // prints out a formatted usage message, // and exits using the exit_value cerr "usage:\n" program_name " " "[-d] [-h] [-v] \n\t"
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