Given the following function declaration declared in a header file in Java

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Given the following function declaration declared in a header file
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int ff( int a, int b, int c = 0 ); // ffh
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how can we redeclare ff() in our file to provide b with a default argument The following is an error, because it respecifies c's default argument:
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#include "ffh" int ff( int a, int b = 0, int c = 0 ); // error
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The following also seems to be an error but in fact is the correct redeclaration:
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#include "ffh" int ff( int a, int b = 0, int c ); // ok
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At the point of this redeclaration of ff(), b is the rightmost argument without a default argument Therefore, the rule that the default argument be assigned by position beginning with the rightmost argument has not been violated In fact, we can now redeclare ff() a third time:
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#include "ffh" int ff( int a, int b = 0, int c ); // ok int ff( int a = 0, int b, int c ); // ok
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A default argument does not have to be a constant expression Any expression can be used For example:
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aDefault(); bDefault( int ); cDefault( double = 78 ); glob; ff( int a = aDefault() , int b = bDefault( glob ) , int c = cDefault() );
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When the default argument is an expression, the expression is evaluated at the time the function is called For example, cDefault() is called to obtain a value for c every time ff() is called without a third argument Ellipses It is sometimes impossible to list the type and number of all the arguments that might be passed to a function In these cases, ellipses () can be specified in the function parameter list Ellipses suspend type-checking Their presence tells the compiler that, when the function is called, zero or more arguments may follow and that the types of the arguments are unknown Ellipses may take either of two forms:
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void foo( parm_list, ); void foo( );
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The first form provides declarations for a certain number of function parameters In this case, type-checking is performed when the function is called for the arguments that correspond to the parameters explicitly declared, whereas type-checking is suspended for the arguments that correspond to the ellipsis In this first form, the comma following the parameter declarations is optional The standard C library output function printf() is an example in which an ellipsis is necessary printf()'s first parameter is always a C-style character string
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int printf( const char* );
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This requires that every call of printf() be passed a first argument of type const char* In calls to printf(), whether other arguments follow the character string is determined by the first argument, referred to as a format string Metacharacters in the format string, set off by %, indicate the presence of additional arguments For example, the call
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printf( "hello, world\n" );
has a single character string argument However,
printf( "hello, %s\n", userName );
has two arguments The % indicates the presence of a second argument; the s indicates that the type of the argument is a character string Most functions with an ellipsis use some information from a parameter that is explicitly declared to obtain the type and number of optional arguments provided in a function call The first form of function declaration with ellipsis is therefore most commonly used Note that the following two declarations are not equivalent:
void f(); void f( );
In the first instance, f() is declared as a function that accepts no parameters; in the second, f() is declared as a function that can take zero or more arguments The calls
f( someValue ); f( cnt, a, b, c );
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are legal invocations of the second declaration only The call
f();
can be used to invoke either the first or the second function
Exercise 74
Which, if any, of the following declarations are errors Why
(a) (b) (c) (d)
void print( int arr[][], int size ); int ff( int a, int b = 0, int c = 0 ); void operate( int *matrix[] ); char *screenInit( int height = 24, int width, char background ); (e) void putValues( int (&ia)[] );
Exercise 75
The redeclaration of each of these functions is an error Why
(a) char *screenInit( int height, int width, char background = ' ' ); char *screenInit( int height = 24, int width, char background ); (b) void print( int (*arr)[6], int size ); void print( int (*arr)[5], int size ); (c) void manip( int *pi, int first, int end = 0 ); void manip( int *pi, int first = 0, int end = 0 );