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No one could be expected to write that, of course Reference parameters provide the solution we need When a parameter is a reference, the function receives the lvalue of the argument rather than a copy of its value Because the function knows where the argument resides in memory, the argument value is not copied into the function parameter area The argument for a reference parameter is the Matrix object itself; this allows us to use the operator as naturally as we use the addition operation for objects of builtin data types Here is our revised sketch of the overloaded addition operator for our Matrix class:
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// new implementation with reference parameters Matrix operator+( const Matrix &m1, const Matrix &m2 ) { Matrix result; // do the computation in result return result; }
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This implementation supports the addition of Matrix objects as follows:
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a + b + c;
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References were introduced into C++ explicitly for the support of class types in particular, to support an intuitive yet efficient mechanism to implement overloaded operators Array Parameters Arrays in C++ are never passed by value Rather, an array is passed as a pointer to its first that is, zeroth element For example,
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void putValues( int[ 10 ] );
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is treated by the compiler as having been declared as
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void putValues( int* );
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The array's size is not relevant to the declaration of the parameter The following three declarations are therefore equivalent:
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// three equivalent declarations of putValues() void putValues( int* ); void putValues( int[] ); void putValues( int[ 10 ] );
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Because an array is passed as a pointer, this has two implications for programmers:
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The changes to an array parameter within the called function are made to the array argument itself and not to a local copy When the array that is the argument of the call must remain unchanged, programmers will need to keep a copy of the original array Alternatively, the function could indicate that it does not intend to change the array elements by declaring the elements in the parameter type as const:
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void putValues( const int[ 10 ] );
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The size of an array is not part of its parameter type The function being passed an array does not know its actual size, and neither does the compiler When the compiler applies parameter type-checking on the argument type, there is no checking of the array sizes For example:
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void putValues( int[ 10 ] ); // treated as int* int main() { int i, j[ 2 ]; putValues( &i ); // ok: &i is int*; potential run-time error putValues( j ); // ok: j is converted to pointer to 0th // element; argument has type int*; // potential run-time error return 0; }
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The extent of the parameter type-checking confirms that both calls of putValues() provide an argument of type int* Typechecking does not verify that the argument is an array of ten elements By convention, C-style character strings are arrays of characters that encode their termination point with a null character All other array types, however, including character arrays that wish to handle embedded null characters, must in some way make their size known when passed as arguments to a function One common mechanism is to provide an additional argument that contains the array's size For example:
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void putValues( int[], int size ); int main() { int i, j[ 2 ]; putValues( &i, 1 ); putValues( j, 2 ); return 0; }
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putValues() prints the values of an array in the following format:
( 10 ) < 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 >
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where 10 represents the size of the array Here is an implementation that uses the additional parameter for the size of the array:
#include <iostream> const lineLength = 12; // elements to a line void putValues( int *ia, int sz ) { cout "( " sz " )< "; for ( int i = 0; i < sz; ++i ) { if ( i % lineLength == 0 && i ) cout "\n\t"; // line filled cout ia[ i ]; // separate all but last element if ( i % lineLength != lineLength-1 && i != sz-1 ) cout ", "; } cout " >\n"; }
Another mechanism is to declare the parameter as a reference to an array When the parameter is a reference to an array type, the array size becomes part of the parameter and argument types, and the compiler checks that the size of the array argument matches the one specified in the function parameter type
// parameter is a reference to an array of 10 ints void putValues( int (&arr)[10] ); int main() { int i, j[ 2 ]; putValues( i ); // error: argument is not an array of 10 ints putValues( j ); // error: argument is not an array of 10 ints return 0; }
Because the array size is now part of the parameter type, this version of putValues() accepts only arrays of ten ints This limits the kind of arrays that can be passed as arguments to putValues() However, it also allows its implementation to be greatly simplified:
#include <iostream> void putValues( int (&ia)[10] ) { cout "( 10 )< "; for ( int i = 0; i < 10; ++i ) { cout ia[ i ]; // separate all but last element if ( i != 9 ) cout ", "; } cout " >\n"; }
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