s3 now contains the value "Miss Anna" Alternatively, we can write it as in Java

Painting QR-Code in Java s3 now contains the value "Miss Anna" Alternatively, we can write it as
s3 now contains the value "Miss Anna" Alternatively, we can write it as
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s3assign( s1, 0, 4 )append( ' ' )append( s2, 0, 4 );
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If we wish to extract a portion of the string that does not start at the beginning, we use an alternative form taking two integer values: a beginning position and a length The position is counted beginning at 0 To extract "belle" from "Annabelle", for example, we
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specify a start position of 4 and a length of 5:
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string beauty; // assign "belle" to beauty beautyassign( s2, 4, 5 );
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Alternatively, rather than provide a position and length, we can provide an iterator pair For example:
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// assign "belle" to beauty beautyassign( s2, s2begin()+4, s2end() );
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In the following example, we have two strings representing a current and a pending task We need to exchange them periodically as we move from one project to the other and back again For example:
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string current_project( "C++ Primer, 3rd Edition" ); string pending_project( "Fantasia 2000, Firebird segment" );
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The swap() operation exchanges the values of the two strings Each invocation of
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current_projectswap( pending_project );
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exchanges the string values of the two objects Given the string
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string first_novel( "V" );
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the subscript
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char ch = first_novel[ 1 ];
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returns an undefined character value, because the index is out of range: first_novel has a length of 1 indexed by the value 0 The subscript operator does not provide range-checking, nor do we want it to on well-behaved code, such as the following:
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int elem_count( const string &word, char elem ) {
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int occurs = 0; // well-behaved: no need to check for out-of-bounds for ( int ix=0; ix < wordsize(); ++ix ) if ( word[ ix ] == elem ) ++occurs; return occurs; }
For potentially ill-defined code, however, such as
void mumble( const string &st, int index ) { // potential range error char ch = st[ index ]; // }
the alternative at() operation provides run-time range-checking of the index If the index is valid, at() returns the associated character element in the same way that the subscript operator does If the index is invalid, however, at() raises the out_of_range exception:
void mumble( const string &st, int index ) { try { char ch = stat(index); // } catch( std::out_of_range ) { } // }
Any two strings that are not equal have a lexigraphical that is, dictionary ordering For example, given the following two strings
string cobol_program_crash( "abend" ); string cplus_program_crash( "abort" );
the cobol_program_crash string object is lexigraphically less than the cplus_program_crash string object through a comparison of the first unequal character: e occurs before o in the English alphabet The compare() string operation provides for a lexigraphical comparison of two strings Given
s1compare( s2 );
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compare() returns one of three possible values: 1 If s1 is greater than s2, compare() returns a positive value 2 If s1 is less than s2, compare() returns a negative value 3 If s1 is equal to s2, compare() returns 0 For example:
cobol_program_crashcompare( cplus_program_crash );
returns a negative value, whereas
cplus_program_crashcompare( cobol_program_crash );
returns a positive value The string relational operators ( <,>,!=,==,<=,>=) provide an alternative shorthand notation for the compare() operation The overloaded set of six compare() operations allows us to mark a substring of either one or both strings for comparison Examples are presented in the previous section in the discussion of suffixing replace() provides us with ten ways of replacing one or more existing characters within a string with one or more alternative characters (the numbers of existing and replacement characters do not need to be equal) The replace() operation has two primary formats, and a subset of variations is based on the method of marking the set of characters to be replaced In one format, the first two arguments provide an index to the start position of the character set and a count of the number of characters to be replaced In the second format, a pair of iterators is passed that marks the start position of the character set and 1 past the last character to be replaced Here is an example of the first format:
string sentence( "An ADT provides both interface and implementation" ); string::size_type position = sentencefind_last_of( 'A' ); string::size_type length = 3; // replace ADT with Abstract Data Type sentencereplace( position, length, "Abstract Data Type" );
The first argument represents the start position, and the second argument represents the length of the string beginning with position; so a length of 3, and not 2, represents the string "ADT" The third argument represents the new string There are a number of variants with which to specify the new string For example, this variant takes a string object rather than a C-style string
string new_str( "Abstract Data Type" ); sentencereplace( position, length, new_str );
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