pos represents a position within the string For example, given the string in Java

Encode QR-Code in Java pos represents a position within the string For example, given the string
pos represents a position within the string For example, given the string
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thing,"
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the first iteration of the loop assigns pos the value 5, the position of the comma After we remove the comma, the string becomes
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thing"
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Position 5 is now the double quotation mark If we had incremented pos, we would have failed to identify and remove this punctuation character Here is how we invoke filter_text() within our main program:
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string filt_elems( "\",;:! )(\\/" ); filter_text( text_locations->first, filt_elems );
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And, finally, here is a sample trace of some of the strings within our text in which one or more filter elements are found:
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filter_text: untamed found! : pos: 7 after: untamed filter_text: "Daddy, found! : pos: 0" after: Daddy, found! : pos: 5, after: Daddy filter_text: thing," found! : pos: 5, after: thing" found! : pos: 5" after: thing filter_text: "I found! : pos: 0" after: I filter_text: Daddy, found! : pos: 5, after: Daddy filter_text: there " found! : pos: 5 after: there" found! : pos: 5" after: there
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Exercise 615 Write a program that, given the string
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"/+(STL)*$1/"
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erases all the characters except STL first using erase(pos,count) and then using erase(iter,iter) Exercise 616 Write a program that accepts these definitions:
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string sentence( "kind of" ); string s1( "whistle" );
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string s2( "pixie" );
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Using the various insert string functions, provide sentence with the value
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"A whistling-dixie kind of walk"
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A String by Any Other Format
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One sort of nuisance detail of a text query system is the need to recognize the same word differing by tense, such as cry, cries, and cried, by number, such as baby and babies, and, more trivially, by capitalization, such as home and Home The first two cases belong to the problem of word suffixing Although the general problem of suffixing is outside the scope of this text, the following small sample solution provides a good exercise of the string class operations Before we turn to suffixing, however, let's first solve the simpler case of capitalization Rather than try to be smart in recognizing special cases, we'll just replace all capital letters with their lowercase form Our implementation looks like this:
void strip_caps( vector<string,allocator> *words ) { vector<string,allocator>::iterator iter = words->begin(); vector<string,allocator>::iterator iter_end = words->end(); string caps( "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" ); while ( iter != iter_end ) { string::size_type pos = 0; while (( pos = (*iter)find_first_of( caps, pos )) != string::npos ) (*iter)[ pos ] = tolower( (*iter)[pos] ); ++iter; } }
The function
tolower( (*iter)[pos] );
is a Standard C library function that takes an uppercase character and returns its lowercase equivalent To use it, we must include the header file
#include <ctypeh>
(This file includes declarations of other functions such as isalpha(), isdigit(), ispunct(), isspace(), toupper(), and others To find a full listing and discussion, see [PLAUGER92] The Standard C++ library defines a ctype class
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that encapsulates the Standard C library functionality as well as a set of nonmember functions such as toupper(), tolower(), and so on To use them, we must include the Standard C++ header file
#include <locale>
As of this writing, however, an implementation of this support is not available to us, so we use the Standard C implementation) Suffixing is difficult to implement rigorously; however, even imperfect implementations yield significant improvements in the quality and size of our collection of words against which to query Our implementation handles only words that end in an 's':
void suffix_text( vector<string,allocator> *words ) { vector<string,allocator>::iterator iter = words->begin(), iter_end = words->end(); while ( iter != iter_end ) { // if 3 or fewer characters, let it be if ( (*iter)size() <= 3 ) { ++iter; continue; } if ( (*iter)[ (*iter)size()-1 ] == 's' ) suffix_s( *iter ); // additional suffix handling goes here such as // ed, ing, ly ++iter; } }
A simple heuristic is not to bother with words having fewer than four characters This saves us from dealing with has, its, is, and so on but fails to catch, for example, tv and tvs as being the same word If the word ends in "ies", as in babies and cries, we need to replace the "ies" with 'y':
string::size_type pos3 = wordsize()-3; string ies( "ies" ); if ( ! wordcompare( pos3, 3, ies )) { wordreplace( pos3, 3, 1, 'y' ); return; }
compare() returns 0 if the two strings being compared are equal pos3 identifies the position within word to begin the comparison The second argument, 3, in this case, indicates the length of the substring beginning at pos3 The third argument is the actual string against which to compare (There are actually six versions of compare() We look at the other versions briefly in the next section)
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