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What are the drawbacks with this solution 1 We must maintain three array implementations containing considerable dup- licated code We'd prefer to have a single copy of the common code shared by three array classes, as well as any other array classes we later chose to support (perhaps a sorted array with bounds-checking) 2 Because the three array implementations are distinct types, we must write separate functions to operate on them, although the general operations within the functions may be identical For example:
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void process_array( IntArray& ); void process_array( IntArrayRC& ); void process_array( IntSortedArray& );
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We'd prefer to write a single function that accepts not only all our existing array classes but also any future array classes provided that the same set of operations are applied to each class The object-oriented paradigm provides us with exactly these abilities Item 1 is provided by the inheritance mechanism When an IntArrayRC class (that is, an IntArray class with range-checking) inherits from an IntArray class, it has access to the data members and member functions of IntArray without requiring that we maintain two copies of the code The new class need provide only the data members and member functions necessary to implement its additional semantics In C++, the class being inherited from, IntArray in this case, is spoken of as a base class The new class is said to be derived from the base class We call it the derived class, or the subtype, of the base class We say that IntArrayRC is a kind of IntArray with specialized behavior to support range-checking of the index value A subtype shares a common interface with its base class that is, a common set of public operations This sharing of a common interface allows the base class and subtype to be used interchangeably within a program without concern for the actual type of the object In a sense, the common interface encapsulates the type-specific details of the individual subtypes The type/subtype relationship between classes forms an inheritance or derivation hierarchy For example, here is the implementation of a nonmember swap() function taking as its primary argument a reference to a base class IntArray object The function swaps the two elements indexed by i and j
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#include <IntArrayh> void swap( IntArray &ia, int i, int j ) { int tmp = ia[ i ]; ia[ i ] = ia[ j ]; ia[ j ] = tmp; }
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Here are three legal invocations of swap():
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IntArray ia; IntArrayRC iarc; IntSortedArray ias; // ok: ia is an IntArray swap( ia, 0, 10 ); // ok: iarc is a subtype of IntArray swap( iarc, 0, 10 ); // ok: ias is also a subtype of IntArray
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swap( ias, 0, 10 // error: string string str( "not swap( str, 0, 10
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); is not a subtype an IntArray!" ); );
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Each of the three array classes provides its own implementation of a subscript operator What we require, of course, is that when
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swap( iarc, 0, 10 );
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is invoked, the IntArrayRC subscript operator is invoked; when
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swap( ias, 0, 10 );
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is invoked, the IntSortedArray subscript operator is invoked, and so on The subscript operator to be invoked by swap() must potentially change with each invocation and must be determined by the actual type of the array whose elements are being exchanged This is accomplished automatically under C++ through the virtual function mechanism The syntactic changes necessary to prepare our IntArray class for inheritance are minimal: we must (optionally) reduce the level of encapsulation to allow the derived classes access to the nonpublic implementation, and we must explicitly identify which functions we wish to be resolved through the virtual mechanism The significant change is in our way of designing a class intended to serve as a base class In an object-based design, there is generally one provider and many users of a class The provider designs and usually implements the class The users exercise the public interface made available by the provider This separation of activity is reflected in the division of the class into private and public access levels Under inheritance, there are now multiple class providers: one providing the base class implementation (and possibly some number of derived classes), and one or others providing derived classes throughout the lifetime of the inheritance hierarchy This activity is also an implementation activity; the provider of the subtype often (but not always) needs access to the base class implementation To provide that, while still preventing general access to the implementation, an additional access level, protected, is provided The data members and member functions of a protected section of a class, while still unavailable to the general program, are available to the derived class (Anything placed within a private section of the base class is available only to the class itself and not to any of the derived classes) Here is our revised IntArray class:
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class IntArray { public: // constructors explicit IntArray( int size = DefaultArraySize ); IntArray( int *array, int array_size ); IntArray( const IntArray &rhs ); // virtual destructor! virtual ~IntArray() { delete [] ia; } // equality and inequality operations: bool operator==( const IntArray& ) const; bool operator!=( const IntArray& ) const; IntArray& operator=( const IntArray& );
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