In uence diagrams and event trees in .NET

Generator GTIN - 12 in .NET In uence diagrams and event trees
20.2.1 In uence diagrams and event trees
Read UPC-A Supplement 2 In .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
In uence diagrams and event trees are alternate representations for the same systems. It is often convenient rst to structure a systems model as an in uence diagram, and then to use the insight gained from the in uence diagram to structure an event tree for the same system. Each tool provides a means of graphically representing events and the interrelationships among events, although these means differ between in uence diagrams and event trees. Each tool can be used to quantify the effects of external risks on process activities, or on engineered or natural systems (Marshall and Oliver 1995).
GS1 - 12 Drawer In VS .NET
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create UPCA image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
INFLUENCE DIAGRAMS
Scanning UPC A In .NET
Using Barcode reader for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
An in uence diagram uses event nodes representing the uncertain conditions surrounding a process, as well as activity nodes representing discrete process steps. Relationships among nodes are shown by directed paths, which sometimes are referred to as arcs or in uence lines. The graphical display of events, process steps, and consequences, and their relationships to components of the system being analyzed is used to visualize the impacts of external events or uncertainties. An in uence diagram is often used as an exploratory tool leading to the development of more formal event trees, and, as such, system states and uncertainties of various types may be mixed within the same diagram. The quanti cation of uncertainty in an in uence diagram is accomplished by building a compatible event tree in conjunction with the diagram. Such a tree consists of chance nodes corresponding to the risk and activity nodes in the in uence diagram, connected by branches delineating their paths of in uence (Clemen and Reilly 1991; Rowe 1977; Stedinger et al. 1996). Relationships among events in event trees follow a hierarchy from independence, through causality, to networked causality, and to temporal orderings. These may be shown in a number of ways, as suggested in Figure 20.9. Many analysts make no distinction between statistical correlations and causal effects, in that the mathematics of probability theory can be made to account for inverted ordering of events, even if the events are causally related.
Barcode Creation In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create bar code image in VS .NET applications.
20.2.2 Elements of in uence diagrams
Scanning Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode decoder for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
Standard practice in constructing in uence diagrams (Marshall and Oliver 1995), similar to standard practice for decision trees (Pratt et al. 1995), is to represent node types by circles or ellipses for uncertainties, squares for decisions, and diamonds for outcomes. Typically, in uence diagrams in dam safety analyses do not include decision nodes, but that need not be the case. Some authors add a fourth, deterministic node, but this could be viewed as a degenerate case of an uncertain node (Bedford and Cooke 2001). A directed arc is used to denote dependence or conditionality in in uence diagrams. A directed arc joining node A to node B (Figure 20.10) may denote that, (1) event A causes
Paint UPC Code In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode drawer for .NET Control to generate, create GS1 - 12 image in .NET framework applications.
independent events
Making UPC Symbol In .NET Framework
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create UPC-A Supplement 2 image in ASP.NET applications.
statistical correlation
Generating Universal Product Code Version A In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode maker for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create UPC Symbol image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
causal effect
GTIN - 12 Generator In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create UPC-A Supplement 5 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
causal chain
Barcode Printer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
causal network
Encode Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET framework applications.
Relational structures in event trees.
Uniform Symbology Specification Code 93 Generation In VS .NET
Using Barcode drawer for .NET Control to generate, create Code 93 image in .NET applications.
EVENT TREE ANALYSIS
UCC-128 Creator In VB.NET
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create UCC.EAN - 128 image in .NET framework applications.
Figure 20.10 Directed arcs in in uence diagrams.
Encoding European Article Number 13 In Visual C#
Using Barcode creation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create EAN13 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
A C B
Data Matrix ECC200 Generator In VS .NET
Using Barcode generation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in ASP.NET applications.
Figure 20.11 Two uncertain variables, A and B, each dependent on a third variable, C.
Make USS Code 128 In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode maker for ASP.NET Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in ASP.NET applications.
event B or in uences the way B happens, or (2) knowing the value of A changes the probability or probability distribution of B (i.e. A and B are probabilistically dependent, and A or the knowledge of A occurs rst in time). Two events A and B can be probabilistically correlated and yet not be joined by a directed arc, for example, if they share common dependence upon some third variable C (Figure 20.11). Knowing the value of C, the uncertainties A and B are assumed probabilistically independent in this in uence diagram (because they are not directly joined by an arc); but if C is unknown, A and B are probabilistically dependent, because each depends on the realization of C. Two events A and B can also be statistically correlated and yet not joined by a directed arc, for example, if estimates of their values are based on the same set of experimental observations. Estimating the Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters c and from a single set of tests introduces correlation because the parameters are effectively regression coef cients.
Painting Bar Code In C#.NET
Using Barcode drawer for VS .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Code 128 Code Set B Encoder In VB.NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 image in .NET applications.
Paint UPC Code In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode creation for VS .NET Control to generate, create UPC-A image in .NET framework applications.