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Figure 18.5 Empirical data for the Gates method of predicting the axial capacity of driven piles (Stenersen 2001).
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Figure 18.6 Empirical calibration data for the PDLT energy method of predicting the axial capacity of driven piles (Stenersen 2001).
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Consider the data of Figure 18.5 from Stenersen (Stenersen 2001), which show empirical comparisons of observed versus predicted pile capacity using the Gates modi cation of the Engineering-News Record formula for predicting the capacity of driven piles (Bowles 1968). The abscissa shows the ratio of observed to predicted pile capacity at failure (method bias), with failure de ned by Davisson s criterion. The abscissa shows number of observations. As can be seen, the data are more or less logNormally distributed, with a mean bias about 1.8 and a coef cient of variation about 0.48. The Gates formula is strongly negatively biased, on overage under-predicting the actual resistance of a single pile by almost a factor of 2. In contrast, the data of Figure 18.6 show empirical comparisons of observed versus predicted pile capacity using the PDLT Energy method. Here, the mean bias is 0.92, and the coef cient of variation of the bias is 0.46. The PDLT Energy method is close to unbiased, although it also has a large coef cient of variation. Note that since the coef cient of variation is the ratio of standard deviation to mean, the standard deviation of the bias for the Gates method is about half that for the PDLT Energy method. Table 18.10 shows recommended resistance factors based on AASHTO (1997) and Barker et al. (1991) for a variety of methods for predicting ultimate axial geotechnical
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Table 18.10 Resistance factors for geotechnical strength limit state for axially loaded piles based on FOSM analysis (modi ed after AASHTO, 1998) Resistance factor, FOSM Skin friction, clay -method -method -method End bearing, clay and rock Clay Rock Skin friction and end bearing, sand SPT-method CPT-method Wave equation analysis with, Assumed driving resistance Load test Clay -method -method -method SPT-method CPT-method Load Test Sand Clay 0.70 0.50 0.55 0.70 0.50 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.80 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.45 0.35 0.45 0.80 0.55 0.55 1.00
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Method/Soil/Condition Ultimate bearing resistance of single piles
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Stress wave measurements on 10% to 70% of piles, capacity veri ed by simpli ed methods, e.g. the pile driving analyzer
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Table 18.11 Resistance factors for geotechnical strength limit state for axially loaded piles based on FORM analysis (Paikowsky et al. 2002) Resistance factor Pile type Soil type Mixed Clay Concrete Pile Sand Mixed Sand Clay Mixed Sand Sand Mixed Pipe Pile Sand Clay Sand Mixed Clay Mixed Sand Clay Mixed Sand Mixed Design method SPT97 mob -API -Method -Method SPT97 mob FHWA CPT -Method/Thurman Tomlinson/Nordlund/Thurman Nordlund -Tomlinson -API/Nordlund/Thurman Meyerhof SPT97 mob, Nordlund SPT 97 mob -API/Nordlund/Thurman -Method -API Meyerhof Tomlinson/Nordlund/Thurman -Method/Thurman -Tomlinson -Method SPT 97 mob SPT 97 mob Nordlund Meyerhof -API -Tomlinson -Method -API/Nordlund/Thurman Tomlinson/Nordlund/Thurman -Method -Method/Thurman RedunNondant redundant 0.70 0.50 0.50 0.40 / RedunNondant redundant 0.40 0.67 0.63 0.46 0.42 0.60 0.51 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.32 0.38 0.38 0.51 0.44 0.31 0.36 0.33 0.32 0.41 0.40 0.36 0.45 0.46 0.49 0.51 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.45 0.51 0.39 0.42 0.29 0.55 0.55 0.34 0.31 0.48 0.39 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.22 0.28 0.27 0.40 0.31 0.21 0.26 0.23 0.23 0.30 0.29 0.25 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.39 0.37 0.37 0.39 0.34 0.39 0.28 0.31
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