LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN in VS .NET

Generator UPC Symbol in VS .NET LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN
Scan UPCA In VS .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in .NET applications.
in which R is the overall bias for resistance, COV (Q) is coef cient of variation of the load, COV (R) is coef cient of variation of the resistance, T is target reliability index, and E(Q) is the expected value of total load. When dead and live loads are considered separately, Equation (18.17) becomes (Yoon and O Neill, 1997) R R = D E(QD ) + L E(QL ) (1 + COV (QD )2 + COV (QL )2 ) (1 + COV (R)2 ) QD E(QD ) + QL E(QL ) exp{ T ln[(1 + COV (R)2 )(1 + COV (QD )2 + COV (QL )2 )]} (18.18)
Painting UPC Code In .NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET framework Control to generate, create UPC-A Supplement 5 image in .NET framework applications.
in which R , QD and QL are bias terms for resistance, dead load (QD ) and live load (QL ), and D and L are dead load and live load factors, respectively. Because the levels of uncertainty in dead loads and live loads differ from one another, so, too, do their corresponding load factors. Table 18.2 shows typical bias terms and coef cients of variation for dead load components and for live loads on highway bridges. The AASHTO (1994) load factors combine dead loads into a single factor. A typical example of calibrated resistance factors is shown in Table 18.3, taken from Barker et al. (1991) for axially loaded piles, calibrated both against ASD and by using FOSM analysis with the speci ed target reliability indices. For use in codes, recommended values of load and resistance factors are typically rounded to the nearest increment of 0.05, and judgment on the historical development of earlier code factors of safety is taken into account in balancing differences between the two calibrations. Also, for most common situations, the dependence of reliability index, , on the ratio of dead load to live load, QD /QL , is relatively small. Thus, a representative value of QD /QL is typically used, and a single resistance factor chosen, irrespective of load ratio.
UPC A Decoder In .NET
Using Barcode scanner for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
18.2.3 Calibration using FORM reliability
Draw Bar Code In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET applications.
The currently preferred way to perform the calibration to obtain load and resistance factors is through rst-order reliability (FORM), that is, using the Hasofer Lind procedure discussed in 16. This procedure is based on choosing a checking point, called,
Barcode Reader In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode scanner for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Table 18.2 Statistics for structural load components for highway bridges. (Nowak, A. S., 1995, Calibration of LRFD Bridge Code, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE Vol. 121, No. 8, pp. 1245 1251, reproduced by permission of the American Society of Civil Engineers) AASHTO Load factor, 1.25 1.03 1.05 1.00 1.10 1.20 0.08 0.10 0.25 0.18
UPCA Generator In Visual C#
Using Barcode drawer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create UPC-A Supplement 5 image in VS .NET applications.
Load component Dead load Factory-made Cast-in-place Asphaltic wearing surface Live load
Drawing UCC - 12 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create GTIN - 12 image in ASP.NET applications.
Bias,
Generating UCC - 12 In VB.NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create UPC A image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
COV,
Print EAN13 In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create EAN-13 image in .NET applications.
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN
Code 39 Generation In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create Code-39 image in .NET framework applications.
Table 18.3 Resistance factors for axial loaded driven piles in sand calibrated to ASD and FOSM (D/L = 3.7, D = 1.3 and = 2.17) (after Barker et al. 1991) Resistance factor , Soil test SPT SPT CPT CPT Pile length (m) 10 30 10 30 Factor of safety, FS 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 Target reliability, T 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Reliability analysis, 0.48 0.51 0.59 0.62 Fitting with ASD 0.33 0.33 0.53 0.53 Recommended 0.45 0.45 0.55 0.55
Barcode Creation In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET framework applications.
Notes: Dead load to live load ratio assumed to be, D/L = 3.7; load factors taken as D = 1.3 and = 2.17. Were these calculations performed with the current AASHTO (1997) load factors of D = 1.25 and = 1.75, the corresponding resistance factors would be 5 20% lower (Withiam et al. 1998).
MSI Plessey Drawer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create MSI Plessey image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
the design point, at a particular point on the limiting state surface, and calculating the reliability index, , separating that point from the joint mean of the uncertain load and resistance variables. The design point is taken as that point on the limiting state surface at which the probability density of the joint random variables is greatest. To simplify the procedure, the calculation of is made in a normalized space of derived random variables, in which each derived variable has unit variance and is independent of all other derived variables. In this derived space, the shortest distance between the joint mean of the derived variables and the state limit function identi es both the design point and the reliability index. The method yields partial safety factors for loads and resistances at a speci ed target reliability index, T . As discussed in 16, this procedure has the advantage over FOSM of greater invariance with respect to the mathematical de nition of limiting state. De ne the limit state function as, g(X) = g(X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ) = 0 (18.19)
Code-128 Maker In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set A image in ASP.NET applications.
in which X is a vector of random variables (X1 , X2 , . . . Xn ) of loads and resistances, for which the limit state is g(X) = 0. Failure occurs for g(X) < 0, non-failure otherwise (Figure 18.1). The n-dimensional space of the variables X is rst transformed to X by the normalization xi mxi xi = (18.20) x i to create zero-mean, unit-variance variables. The space X is then rotated to remove correlations among the derived variables, yielding zero-mean, unit-variance, independent variables. Finally, the space is transformed for non-Normal distributions (e.g. for logNormal variables the logarithm of each is taken), yielding a normalized space in which the shortest distance between the origin (i.e. the joint means of the derived random variables xi ) and the design point the most probably failure point on the transformed limit state gives the reliability index for the design (Figure 18.2). For a given target reliability index T , the mean values of basic variables can be used to compute partial safety factors required to provide the target reliability i = xi E[xi ] (18.21)
Make Code 128 In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in .NET framework applications.
Print Bar Code In Java
Using Barcode generation for Java Control to generate, create bar code image in Java applications.
GS1 - 13 Printer In VB.NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET Control to generate, create GTIN - 13 image in .NET applications.
Generating ANSI/AIM Code 39 In Java
Using Barcode generator for Java Control to generate, create Code 39 image in Java applications.