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edge obtained from the knowledge exchange (Expression 6-6). The RAs electronically <Publish/> a <Policy/> that enables the secondary spectrum user to <Rent/> spectrum in a given place and time. The place is an area, not a point, so the policy implies power and spatial controls on RF propagation. Those wishing to rent their spectrum <Publish/> a more detailed offering typically from xed infrastructure. CRMs <Rent/> the spectrum for a speci ed <Time-interval/> using <Spectrum-cash/>, con rming <Satisfaction/> if the spectrum is available as advertised. Otherwise, the renter may register a <Complaint/> to the RA. Expression 6-6 Spectrum Rental Instance
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<Abstractions> <RF> <Spectrum-rental/> </Abstractions> <Physical-universe> . . . <RF> <Spectrum-rental/> <Scene> <Location> Fairfax, VA </Location> </Scene> <Entity> <RA> FCC <Publish> <RF> 400MHz </RF> <Policy> Enable spectrum rental </Policy> </Publish> </RA> </Entity> <Entity> <RAA> Agent1 <Behavior> Observes and enforces policy compliance </Behavior> </RAA> </Entity> <Entity> <LRF> <Behavior> <Publish> <Rent> <RF> 405MHz </RF> <Time-interval> 5minutes </Time-interval> <Spectrum-cash> $0.07 </Spectrum-cash> </Rent> </Publish> </Behavior> </LRF> <Entity> <CRM> AACR <Message> <Rent/> <Satis ed/> <Complain/> </Message> <Behavior> <Rent> <RF> 405MHz <Time> 1105 </Time> </RF> </Behavior> <Behavior> <Satis ed> <RF> 405MHz <Time> 1110 </Time> </RF> </Behavior> <Behavior> <Rent> <RF> 405MHz <Time> 1115 </Time> </RF> </Behavior> <Behavior> <Rent> <RF> 405MHz <Time> 1118 </Time> <Defer/> </RF> </Behavior> <Behavior> <Complain> <RF> = 405 MHz <Time> 1118 <Time/> <Reason> <Legacy/> </Behavior> </CRM> <CRF/> <Entity/> </Scene> </Spectrum-rental> </RF> . . . </Physical-universe> In the experience remembered in Expression 6-6, the AACR rented spectrum at 1105 AM for 5 minutes, paying $0.07 at 1110. The AACR was interrupted by a legacy user at 1118, so it had to <Defer/> the spectrum to the
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legacy user and therefore decided to <Complain/> to the offeror as shown. The signal structure for such spectrum sharing is outlined in the companion CD-ROM. In this vignette the spectrum is rented for a small fee collected in spectrum-cash, funds that can be traded among parties without necessarily being converted to actual cash. Police, re, rescue, and others that now radiate 10 W to reach their own sparse towers could employ spectrum with greater ef ciency radiating 100 mW to nearby PCS towers on their legacy frequencies with legacy radios connected via ISP or cellular backhaul in exchange for secondary commercial use of public use spectrum. Such public commercial spectrum pooling has great value at peak intensity hours of the day when cellular providers are turning away paying customers (e.g., 10 am). Such cognitively rented secondary spectrum could be a low-cost source of longterm revenue. Many social and regulatory issues must be resolved for this promising technical case to become deployed. 6.2.2 OFDM Spectrum Management Vignette This vignette shows how a renter could occupy multiple empty channels at once using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM senses vacant space time epochs of spectrum and formulates broadband energy to ll in the gaps. Friedrich Jondral and Timo Weiss, for example, have investigated opportunities for more agile use of spectrum via their spectrum measurement campaigns conducted speci cally for OFDM spectrum pooling [159]. (See Figure 6-2.)
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FIGURE 6-2 Spectrum use in Lichteneau, Germany in 2003. (Courtesy of Dr. Friedrich K. Jondral, Universit t Karlsruhe, Germany; used with permission.)
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Although subbands are allocated to licensed users, secondary OFDM users may employ unused spectrum either by regulatory permission or by renting from the primary user. The waveforms that optimize sharing t in the vacancies between instantaneously used spectrum. OFDM features [160] enable the tailoring of multiple orthogonal frequency-domain carriers to t in the instantaneous cracks between legacy users. To complete this use case one must abstract the signi cant entities and formalize their behaviors for the <Self/>. In an interesting companion to the Jondral Weiss ideas, the Communications Research Centre (CRC) of Canada examines the 5250 to 5320 MHz license-exempt band [161, 162]. The CRC shows empirically the relationship between wind and signal strength for small RF cells on an optical backbone. 6.2.3 Regulatory Authority Vignettes
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The perspective of the RAs loom large in the various spectrum management use cases. The many regulatory issues to be addressed in exible spectrum management include the certi cation of hardware software con gurations to transmit; licensing entities and collecting tariffs; monitoring for abuses; and enforcing penalties [163]. 6.2.3.1 European Regulatory Perspective In September 2003, the U.K. Regulatory Authority s Regulatory Round Table on SDR addressed European concerns about the management of SDR and cognitive radio. The workshop was organized by Walter Tuttlebee, Director, Mobile Virtual Communications Enterprise (VCE) for the U.K. RA. At that time, regulators stated a need for clearer de nitions to facilitate regulation. European regulators planned to keep the burden of type certi cation on the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) as de ned in the EU telecommunications regulatory framework. This framework wiped out type certi cation by the RAs in favor of rules ( R&TTE ) that consolidated the markets of the member states into a single integrated market, third largest in the world after the United States and Japan, with China growing fast. This means that OEMs certify that they comply with published constraints like spectrum masks and co-use limits. This regulatory framework is one of the most permissive regulatory styles, intended to promote market consolidation and economies of scale. Expression 6-7 Liability Is Assigned by the RA to the OEM Who Certi es a Con guration <Abstractions> <Liability/> <Liability> Legal responsibility for failure to comply with policy </Liability>
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