KNOWLEDGE OF THE UHF RADIO BAND in Java

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KNOWLEDGE OF THE UHF RADIO BAND
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enhances QoI to recommend diversity antenna parameters to the user. It adaptively combines diversity inputs. The diversity-aware CR learns new signal processing techniques to enhance diversity reception, synthesizing combining algorithms and collaborating with CWNs. 7.6.2.7 Diversity, Smart Antennas, and FH Mitigate Fading The statistical structure of fading depends on re ection, refraction, and the speed of subscriber movement. At UHF, fades are distinct at speeds below 5 mph with regular deep fades observed as distinct events. Diversity antennas placed greater than a few wavelengths apart mitigate distinct fading because the nulls typically extend spatially less than a wavelength. Slow FH also mitigates slow fading by changing f and therefore t and x in the multipath fading model. Using That Knowledge: The multipath-expert CR can explain how diversity, smart antennas, and FH mitigate slow fading. It can initiate slow FH with an AACR counterpart to overcome slow fading. It can also synthesize a FH scheme tailored to the fading, enhancing performance or conserving computational resources and thus battery life as the user situation dictates. 7.6.2.8 Coding Mitigates Fast Fading As the speed of the subscriber increases above 5 mph the subscriber moves rapidly through multipath peaks and nulls, randomizing deep fade temporal structure. Such fades present a k-symbols erasure channel, so a code that can detect d > k bit erasures and correct k bit errors removes the effects of the fading. As the speed increases so that the duration of erasures is on the order of a bit period, the deep fades have the structure of independent bit errors. Well known models specify BER, Eb /No channel symbol, and channel symbol demodulation method (e.g., hard decoding, soft decoding, trellis coding). Using That Knowledge: The multipath-expert CR can explain the way fast fading changes from an erasure channel to a random bit error channel as the speed of movement increases. It can model Eb /No and use coding tables to design a forward error control (FEC) code tailored to mitigate the fast fading. 7.6.2.9 Using Propagation Models to Mitigate Fading Suf cient received signal strength for communications in urban areas may require the equalization of a large number of re ections via space time adaptive processing (STAP). Cellular propagation-modeling tools include WrAP [178] and RF-CAD [179]. By using 3D building plans accurate to less than 1 meter, calibrated tools predict RSSI to within 10 dB. Moving re ectors (e.g., trucks, aircraft, and other vehicles) complicate calibration and model validation. Calibrated models predict RSSI, equalizer, and STAP performance.
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RADIO KNOWLEDGE
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Using That Knowledge: The multipath-expert CR can explain cellular and PCS models. It can list current software tools and identify those available locally or via CWN. It can propose to use the tool appropriate to setting up a CWN (e.g., an 802.11 wireless LAN hot spot) or diagnosing CWN impairments. The iCR calibrates models via eld measurements either individually or in collaboration with other CRs. 7.6.3 UHF Available Communications Modes
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UHF includes AM (LSB, USB, VSB), FM (voice, fax), narrowband data (FSK, PSK, 75 bps to 9.6 kbps typical), multichannel radio relay (4 60 channels, PPM, FSK, PSK; fractional T1 E1), and spread spectrum (CDMA) mobile cellular and SATCOM. 7.6.3.1 UHF Modes Knowledge Chunk Traditional narrowband air interfaces like AM (LSB, USB, VSB), FM (voice, fax), and narrowband data (FSK, PSK, 75 bps to 9.6 kbps typical) are common in UHF. Using That Knowledge: A UHF AACR should be able to explain to a nonexpert user the modes typically employed in UHF, including the bandwidth and channel spacing of legacy spectrum allocations. It recognizes narrowband UHF modes and can con gure a waveform template to interoperate with legacy users. The iCRs con gure <Self/> narrowband waveforms by recognizing and adapting to the counterpart air interface. 7.6.3.2 Multichannel UHF Knowledge Chunk Multichannel UHF radio relays support 60 240 channels or more using FDM, PPM, FSK, PSK, and QAM channel symbols. Multichannel digital air interfaces include full and fractional T1 and E1, with protocols recognized by the channel symbol rate. Using That Knowledge: The multichannel-expert CR should be able to explain multichannel radio relays, identifying channel symbols and protocols. It uses that knowledge to assist in setting up wireless backbone networks, establishing an air interface compatible with legacy radios. 7.6.3.3 JTIDS Knowledge Chunk One of the most widely known DSSS hybrids, JTIDS, hops over 240 MHz in the 1.2 GHz RF band [174]. The U.S. Air Force and NATO publish the HAVE QUICK I and II slow FH air interface used by military aircraft. Using That Knowledge: The JTIDS-aware CR should be able to explain the JTIDS air interface and protocol. It should differentiate between features that
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