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The new window barney is created based on fred in line 16. The new window inherits fred s text. Then the program bounces back and forth between the windows, displaying information.
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Scrolling text doesn t seem like a big deal, and it isn t today! Thirty years ago it was a big deal so much so that a scrolling screen of text was patented (probably by IBM). The fact that text scrolls on the screen seems to be taken for granted. But it s not something that the terminal does automatically: scrolling must be programmed. After all, the screen is merely a matrix of text. Internally, the screen buffer is only as big as the screen. Whenever you see something larger than the screen displayed (and scrollable), it s programming magic that moves text from a separate buffer to the screen. Fortunately, scrolling the screen is no big deal, even if you have to program the scroll yourself: a line of text is removed, the remaining text is moved, then a new line of text is added. It s not really that complicated, and you could do it yourself but you don t have to! NCurses gladly handles any scrolling chores your programs require.
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In NCurses, scrolling text is a window attribute, just like the window s size, location, cursor location, and other attributes. This attribute is normally turned off, meaning that windows in NCurses doesn t scroll a window by default. Here s proof, as shown in Listing 10-4.
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Listing 10-4: scroller.c
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 #include <ncurses.h> #define FILENAME gettysburg.txt int main(void) { FILE *text; WINDOW *lister; int maxy,maxx,ch; initscr(); getmaxyx(stdscr,maxy,maxx); /* create window lister */
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Listing 10-4 (continued)
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15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
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lister = newwin(maxy,maxx/2,0,maxx/4); if( lister == NULL) { addstr( unable to create window\n ); refresh(); getch(); endwin(); return(1); } /* open the file */ text = fopen(FILENAME, r ); if( text == NULL ) { addstr( unable to open file\n ); refresh(); getch(); endwin(); return(2); } /* display the file s contents */ do { ch = fgetc(text); waddch(lister,ch); wrefresh(lister); } while (ch != EOF); fclose(text); getch(); endwin(); return(0); }
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This program creates a new window, lister. The window is half the width of the standard screen, but just as tall. A file is opened on disk and displayed, character by character, in the window. The notion here is to display enough text that the window needs to scroll to display the whole thing. Note that the filename is defined in line 3. I m using the text from Lincoln s Gettysburg Address, which is saved in the same folder as SCROLLER.C and in a file named GETTYSBURG.TXT. Be sure to specify the name of an existing text file in line 3; the file must contain enough text to require the window to scroll to display it all. Breaking with tradition here, I m doing some error-checking in this program, both for creating the new window as well as opening the file. And... it doesn t scroll. Instead, after the window is filled, remaining text in the file continues to be plugged in to the bottom-most, right character position in window lister.
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Enabling scrolling in NCurses is easy, thanks to the scrollok() function:
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scrollok(win,TRUE);
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The scrollok() function sets or resets the ability of a window to scroll. The window is specified as win, and the second argument is either TRUE or FALSE to turn scrolling on or off (respectively) for that window. Add the following at line 23:
scrollok(lister,TRUE);
This time the text continues to display as the window scrolls its contents up, allowing for the new text. If your text file isn t long enough to scroll the window, then choose another file. Scrolling affects the location of the window s cursor. When a character is placed at the bottom right position in a window, scrolling advances the text up one line (the scroll), then returns the cursor to the start of the bottom line in the window, column zero.