Windows of a Smaller Size in Java

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Listing 8-2 (continued)
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36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 else addch(ch); } while (ch != ~ ); endwin(); return 0; } void showhelp(void) { wrefresh(help); getch(); refresh(); }
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/* wait for key press */
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This example is yet another typing program, la-di-da! Note, however, that echo is off and, therefore, an addch() function is required (line 37) to display input. But anyway, when you press the + key, a second window help appears displaying the help screen. Pressing Enter then returns you to the standard screen. The showhelp() function is where the swapping takes place. The function used to display the help screen is wrefresh() function, as shown in line 47. Likewise, a refresh() function in line 50 is used to switch back to the standard screen. That makes sense, so why doesn t it work Well, it does work! The wrefresh() function writes only changed text to the screen. Refer to 2: Only new text written to the screen or text changed what NCurses refers to as touched text is written to the screen when you wrefresh(). By working in that manner, NCurses is very efficient. But when you want to display an entire window s contents, that behavior isn t very helpful. The solution is to force NCurses to display the entire window. Without manually going through and rewriting the thing, you can use the touchwin() function:
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touchwin(win)
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The touchwin() function leads NCurses to believe that every character location in the window win has been touched or updated since the last refresh. Therefore, on the next refresh() or wrefresh() call, the entire window will be written to the screen. To fix the code, add the following at line 46:
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touchwin(help);
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And add the following at line 49:
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touchwin(stdscr);
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After compiling, you can deftly switch between the windows (using + and Enter), with everything working as expected.
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There is no reason for the help menu window to be as large as it is. Using the newwin() function, you can set the size and location of the new window to be as large as the screen (with all zeros; line 14 of HELPMENU1.C) or as tiny as one character. Here is the full format for the newwin() function again:
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newwin(rows,cols,y_org,x_org)
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Figure 8-1 shows a graphical representation of how those arguments work. The values rows and cols set the size of the new window. The window s position is relative to the screen, y_org and x_org, where the home position is 0,0. Remember that the newwin() function fails either when not enough memory is available or part of the window hangs off the visible screen. I didn t do it in the sample program, but consider using the getmaxyx() function to determine screen width and height before you set the new window s size.
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Home 0,0
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begin_x ncols
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nlines
begin_y
New window
Figure 8-1: Positioning a new window on the screen
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Meanwhile, to change the help window s size, edit the MENUHELP1.C source code and change line 14 as follows:
if((help = newwin(10,30,4,26)) == NULL)
Also change lines 20, 21 and 22 to:
mvwaddstr(help,1,7, Help menu Screen ); mvwaddstr(help,5,3, Press the ~ key to quit ); mvwaddstr(help,8,4, Press ENTER to go back );
The changes are minor; just some positioning and new offsets. But after saving, compiling, and running, you can still see the original window, stdscr, behind the help window.
Removing a Window
To remove a single window, such as a new window you created, the delwin() function is used:
delwin(win)
The delwin() function removes the window win, a window you created by using the newwin() function sometime earlier in your code. delwin() removes the window s internal structure and memory used by the window, but it does not erase the window s screen image. To do that, you ll have to wrefresh(), and possibly touchwin(), another window on the screen. See Listing 8-3.