2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 #include <ncurses.h> in Java

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 #include <ncurses.h>
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int main(void) { initscr(); addstr( Goodbye, cruel C programming! ); refresh(); getch(); endwin(); return 0; }
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In line 5, the initscr() function configures NCurses and creates both the stdscr and curscr. Text is written to the stdscr using the addstr() function in line 6. The refresh() command in line 7 updates both the virtual screen, which immediately updates the current screen and, in the end, the terminal window so that you can see the text. In line 8, everything pauses with getch(), waiting for the user to press Enter. The endwin() function shuts NCurses down in line 10, but endwin() deserves its own section and explanation.
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The initscr() Function s Exceptions
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For starting out, it s easy to remember that initscr() is the function that initializes NCurses for your code. But initscr() isn t alone; it has a twin function called newterm(). The newterm() function sets up NCurses just as initscr() does, but it allows you more control over the input and output sources. Therefore, it s kind of an advanced function, and, if you re curious, you can look it up in Appendix A. Otherwise, it does not appear in the tutorial portion of this book.
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Basic I/O, the NCurses Way
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Also, initscr() isn t necessarily the very first NCurses function you ll use in your code. There are several functions in NCurses that must be used before initscr(). These functions are mentioned under the definition of inistscr() in Appendix A, and more information on each function can be found in that appendix as well.
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The endwin() Function
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The cleanup hitter in the NCurses line up is the endwin() function. It undoes any modifications that NCurses has made to your terminal, and does other tidying up. It s very important that you finish your NCurses program with this command! If you neglect to use endwin(), your terminal s behavior becomes unpredictable. (This is the voice of experience here.) So be very, very sure that you use endwin() when your program is done especially if you re programming some large, monster program with several exit holes. Note that the standard C output functions putc(), puts(), printf(), and so on do output text when NCurses is active, though by doing so NCurses would be confused about what s on the display. Therefore, it s better not to use such output functions while NCurses is actively outputting text. Incidentally, endwin() need not be the end of your NCurses program. It s possible to use endwin() to merely suspend NCurses and return to the terminal. When the refresh() function is used after endwin(), it reactivates NCurses visual mode, though you must still use another endwin() function to properly end your program. The entry for endwin() in Appendix A explains more about this feature.
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The refresh() Function
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Rare is the NCurses program without a refresh() function. It s almost required. refresh() updates the screen, noting any changes between what you want on the screen and what s there and writing the difference. Use the following code in Listing 2-1 to create the cls program.
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Listing 2-1: cls.c
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 #include <ncurses.h>
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int main(void) { initscr(); refresh(); endwin(); return 0; }
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Yes, indeed, the program clears the screen. Here s how. When initscr() runs, it initializes stdscr, the default window, to all blanks and it sets the cursor to the home position, top row, left-most column. The refresh() function updates stdscr to the current screen and the terminal display, which has the effect of clearing the screen and homing the cursor.
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Writing Text
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Here are three popular NCurses text output functions: addch(ch); addstr(*str); printw(format,var[,var...]); The addch() function places (or adds) a single character to the display. addstr() adds an entire string, essentially calling addch() over and over until the entire string is coughed up. You ve already seen addstr() in use with the goodbye.c program in 1. It s similar to the puts() function in C, though a newline (\n) isn t automatically appended to the string. printw() is the NCurses version of the printf() function. It outputs a formatted string to the display. NCurses sports more text output functions, but for getting started these three basic functions are fine.
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