GLOBALLY COORDINATED ROUTING in Visual Studio .NET

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GLOBALLY COORDINATED ROUTING
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This estimate is used, in place of hop count, in what are otherwise traditional routing protocols.
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7.5 GLOBALLY COORDINATED ROUTING While the objective of link-quality-aware routing is to maximize the ef ciency of a route, these protocols operate greedily and do not coordinate routing across routes to achieve overall network performance optimization. In an MHWN, multiple connections exist that are each made of multiple links. These links compete with other links in their neighborhood for access to the common channel. The aim of the globally aware routing is to nd the routing con guration that would provide optimal (or near-optimal) overall network performance across all connections. The optimality criteria can be de ned in multiple ways that combine the performance of the individual connections. For example, the objective may be de ned as maximizing the overall network throughput or, alternatively, in terms of the expected end-to-end delay or even in terms of fairness. Globally coordinated routing requires global (or at least, nonlocal) state information. Thus, developing such solutions for dynamic networks is challenging. However, modeling the problem and evaluating the global solutions relative to the local solutions are important for the following reasons: (1) They are directly applicable for traf c engineering in static, or slowly dynamic, networks. Static MHWNs are an important subset of MHWNs that includes mesh networks, some sensor networks, and potentially portions of ad hoc networks; (2) this provides realistic tight limits on the achievable performance for different networks, which can be used to guide provisioning decisions and provide an upper limit on protocol performance; and (3) experience with the nature of optimal con gurations and understanding the type of coordination required across connections can provide insight into designing a next generation of distributed routing protocols. Thus, this provides a exible and effective tool for evaluating and optimizing MHWNs. Globally coordinated routing is a component in the optimal transmission schedule assumed by Gupta and Kumar in deriving their asymptotic limit on MHWN performance [23]. The remaining component is optimal scheduling. However, in a contention-based protocol, guaranteeing optimal scheduling is impossible. Thus, it is important for the routing decisions to be aware of the scheduling implications. In this section, we motivate globally coordinated routing, discuss the basic model for expressing the globally coordinated routing problem, and express the desired objective function. In the next section, we discuss the problem of modeling MHWNs for purposes of globally coordinated routing. Con gurations obtained via globally coordinated routing will generally achieve a substantial improvement over greedy protocols. For example, in the small scenario depicted in Figure 7.3, coordinated routing yields a 33% more throughput without a decrease in any of the individual connection s throughput. The reduction in interference bottlenecks will have other bene cial advantages such as reducing the end-to-end delays and packet drops, which bene t upper-layer protocols such as TCP. It is likely
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EFFECT OF INTERFERENCE ON ROUTING IN MULTIHOP WIRELESS NETWORKS
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(a) 33
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Figure 7.3. Example illustrating coordinated routing. (a) Suboptimal routes. (b) Optimal routes.
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that the advantages of this approach will be ampli ed by larger, more complex scenarios where greedy solutions are likely to be far off from optimality. Furthermore, the objective function can be manipulated to incorporate QoS, fairness, or other desired considerations. As a motivating example, consider the network shown in Figure 7.3. There are three connections between nodes 4 and 15, 19 and 30, and 33 and 36. Consider the routing con guration in Figure 7.3a. The dotted lines denote the interference range of the active nodes. An ideal unit disk interference range is used for illustrative purpose. Let us assume that all the links used by the connection are of the same quality and connections get started in the sequence 4 15, 19 30, and 33 36. The connection 19 30 is able to choose an interference separated path from the connection 4 15. However, when the connection 33 36 starts, the nodes 28, 29, 35, and 36 experience interference from the other connection. The routing con guration shown in Figure 7.3b shows the optimal routes that do not interfere with each other. In the suboptimal route con guration (Figure 7.3a), there is no incentive for the connection
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