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a multiple-channel scenario, each with different bandwidths and data rate, an extended version of ETX called Weighted Cumulative Estimated Transmission Time (WCETT) was proposed by Draves et al. [28]. However, under a single-channel model, which is the focus of the chapter, WCETT measurement will be identical to ETX measurement
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pattern in [44] indicates that RTT is useful for measuring links with very high loss rates, but not for other links. Since the RTT uses xed-size packets for measurement it is susceptible for packet size. Also, the control packets are unicast to each of the neighbor and ows twice between a pair of nodes. This leads to higher measurement overhead, making it unscalable for dense networks. Packet Pair. This is a standard approach used in estimating the bandwidth in traditional networks [47]. The sender transmits two packets back-to-back, one with smaller packet size and another with a larger packet size. The measurement of the delay between the packets at the receiver will indicate the one-way contention across the link, and this delay is conveyed to the sender. Since the receiver measures the time-interval between the packet pair, it is possible to avoid the effect of queueing delays in measuring the contention at the link. Packet pair is a close relative of RTT that eliminates the queue delay factor from the metric. Draves et al. [44] compared packet pair metric with the above metrics. While the packet pair metric eliminates the queueing delays, the other drawbacks of the RTT are still present. An additional problem of delays associated with possible packet retransmission of the second control packet can cause this approach to underestimate the link quality. Estimated Data Rate (EDR) [40]. EDR proposes to address the de ciency of the ETX to measure the available capacity (Property 1). EDR assumes that the effectiveness of the route depends upon the available capacity and the packet loss of the bottleneck link. The bottleneck link is determined by considering the amount of queue buildup at the nodes of a route. The ETX of the bottleneck link and the MAC layer effects like backoff is approximated and the EDR metric is proposed for measuring the quality of the route. While EDR accounts for the available capacity, it bases the metric on the bottleneck link, thus not optimizing the other hops of the route. EDR is not sensitive to adaptive data rate and varying packet sizes of the actual data. Required Number of Packets (RNP) [41]. Cerpa et al. [41] studied temporal properties of links and observed that there is a signi cant variation of the link properties over larger time frames. The above-mentioned metrics are insensitive to temporal variations and thus fail to depict the link quality. They proposed a metric called Required Number of Packets (RNP), which is sensitive to distribution of the packet losses and thus will avoid links with temporal instability. RNP is estimated by periodically broadcasting control packets for a small duration of time and measuring the temporal variation of the reception rate at all the neighbors. While this metric captures the temporal properties, the measurement overhead of such broadcasts over a period of time is high. Observing the effect of interfering links using RNP is dif cult since it requires all the interfering links to transmit in a time-synchronized manner. Such measurements fail to capture the real traf c on the contending links, thus estimating the available capacity (Property 1) and packet loss (Property 2). Moreover, since broadcast is being used, such measurement is prone to the effects of adaptive
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data rate changes and packet size variations. However, temporal changes in link quality will place a higher emphasis on deciding the measurement time frames for all the above metrics and thus play a signi cant role in deciding the throughput of the link. Expected MAC Latency (ELR) [42]. ETX and EDR not only require additional beacon-based broadcast packets, but also fail to account for the changes of the data rate (by the MAC protocol) and packet sizes (by the application). The unicast link properties, which are inherently different from the broadcast link properties, cannot be accurately estimated using broadcast packets. Also, the temporal changes in the traf c, which occurs frequently, are not captured by the above metrics. Expected MAC latency (ELR) proposes to overcome this problem by learning the link quality as the data packets are forwarded. The key idea of ELR is to eliminate the broadcast control packets by combining the properties of the geography-unaware routing protocols with the geography-aware routing protocols [11]. ELR measures expected MAC latency per unit distance (LD) to the destination by a one-time initialization of the node locations and periodically calculates the link effectiveness by switching to different probable next hops. Continuous measurement of the link effectiveness is used to calculate the probability with which the neighbor may be the best forwarder. Upon a successful packet transfer to a next hop, the LD is updated to account for the newly observed latency. If the link observes a packet loss, the previously observed latency is incremented based on the delivery rate on the link. Since the LD is log-normally distributed, the logarithm of LD (log(LD)) is estimated (described in Algorithm 3).
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ALGORITHM 3. Algorithm to Compute MAC Latency per Unit Distance (LD) of a Link Require: Node X has sent the unicast packet to send and the set of possible forwarders is nonempty {// is the weight associated for the older samples to avoid random uctuations} {// pxy = Unicast delivery rate on the link XY } {// LDxy = Estimated MAC latency between the link XY } Probabilistically choose the next hop forwarder Y among the set of possible forwarders and transmit the packet to Y . if Packet is successfully transmitted to Y , then pxy Update the unicast delivery rate on the link due to packet success lxy Compute the latency of this packet delivery X to Y log(LDxy ) log(LDxy ) + (1 ) log(LDxy ) else {Packet transmission is not successful} pxy Update the unicast delivery rate on the link due to packet failure { //Expected number of retries for packet success= p1 . Increase the latency accordingly} xy lxy (1 + p1 )lxy xy log(LDxy ) log(LDxy ) + (1 ) log(lxy ) end if
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