ADAPTIVE BACKBONE MULTICAST ROUTING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS in .NET

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they should become backbone nodes themselves. As a result, ADBM achieves adaptability by allowing nodes in static areas to be up to HOP THRESHOLD away from their backbone nodes (to reduce overhead) and by implicitly lowering the hop limit for nodes in dynamic areas (to increase robustness of virtual backbones). McDonald and Znati introduced an adaptive clustering framework, called ( , t) cluster [20], to support a mobility-adaptive hybrid routing architecture. This framework partitions the network into clusters of nodes and ensures that every node in each cluster has a path to every other node in the same cluster for the next time period t with probability . Hence, with different mobility conditions, cluster sizes are adjusted accordingly. Although ADB and ( , t) cluster share similar objectives in providing mobility-adaptive infrastructures for hybrid routing, there are several differences between the two protocols. First, the design of the ( , t) cluster framework mainly aims to support unicast routing, while ADB is intended for multicast routing. Second, in the ( , t) cluster framework, a node has to ensure that its associativity with every other node in the same cluster meets certain criteria. ADB, on the other hand, requires a node to maintain stability constraints with only one node in the cluster, that is, the backbone node. And nally, to maintain cluster membership, the ( , t) cluster framework relies on routing information provided by an underlying proactive routing protocol, while ADB is independent of any routing protocol to operate.
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6.5 CONCLUSION We have introduced a mobility-adaptive multicast protocol for mobile ad hoc networks, called Adaptive Dynamic Backbone Multicast (ADBM). The protocol, based on a two-tier architecture, incorporates the Adaptive Dynamic Backbone (ADB) algorithm to construct a virtual backbone infrastructure that facilitates multicast operations. ADB extracts a subset of nodes, called backbone nodes or cores, out of the network. These cores then establish connectivity among one another to form a virtual infrastructure. Each core is allowed to have larger coverage in relatively static areas, while the coverage is reduced in more dynamic areas so that connectivity among cores can be ef ciently established and quickly reestablished under high mobility. ADBM employs the provided backbone infrastructure to achieve adaptive multicast routing that integrates a tree-based scheme and a ooding scheme together to provide both ef ciency in static areas and robustness in dynamic areas, even within the same network. Since every node is either a core or has an association to a core via its parent node, cores are also used to avoid global ooding of control messages triggered by a node s joining a group or maintaining group membership, as found in other on-demand multicast protocols.
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6.6 EXERCISES 1. Consider a network of six stationary nodes running ADB, as shown below. Gray lines indicate that nodes are neighbors. Assume that all nodes have already heard
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of their neighbors HELLO packets at least once and never encountered a lost HELLO , and also assume that the core selection process has not yet been triggered. What is the content of a HELLO packet sent out by node 6
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2. The diagram below illustrates a network of 10 nodes with a stable backbone formation. Gray lines indicate that nodes are in each other s vicinity, black lines indicate the current backbone formation, and gray nodes are current serving as cores. Given that every node has the normalized link failure frequency (nlff ) of 0.2 link failure per neighbor per second, show the Neighbor Information Tables (NIT) of nodes with IDs 1 and 7.
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10 4 3 2 5 1 9 7 6 8
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3. The following table summarizes current node information right before the core selection process is triggered. Which of the ve nodes will continue serving as cores immediately after the core selection process was triggered
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