A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS in Visual Studio .NET

Generator QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Visual Studio .NET A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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ALGORITHM 2. CGSR Routing Protocol [17] // CMT = Cluster Member Table; RT = Routing Table S wants to communicate with D S looks up the clusterhead of D in CMT S looks up the next hop towards D in RT S forwards packet to clusterhead of next hop while packet is not delivered if destination CH is within direct range of current CH current CH forwards packet to destination CH destination CH delivers packet to D else current CH forwards packets to Gateway Node gateway node sends packet to CH of next hop end if end if
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hence each cluster is required to utilize spatial reuse of codes. Within each cluster, TDMA is used with token passing. Gateway nodes are de ned as those nodes which are members of more than one cluster and therefore need to be communicating using different CDMA codes based on their respective cluster heads. The main fators affecting routing in these networks are token passing (in cluster heads) and code scheduling (in gateways). This uses a sequence number scheme as in DSDV [6] to reduce stale routing table entries and gain loop-free routes. A packet is routed through a collection of these cluster heads and gateways in this protocol. Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) [18]. WRP is one of the earliest works on routing algorithms and is similar to the distributed Bellman Ford algorithm. It is a
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5 Node 4 Gateway 1 3 6 8 2 7 Cluster head
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Figure 5.7. Cluster gateway switch routing [17].
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AD HOC NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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table-driven protocol where routing tables are maintained for all destinations. The routing table contains an entry for each destination with the next hop and a cost metric. The route is chosen by selecting a neighbor node that would minimize the path cost. Link costs are also de ned and maintained in a separate table, and various techniques are available to determine these link costs. To maintain the routing tables, frequent routing update packets have to be sent. These are sent to all neighbors of a node and contain all the routes which the node is aware of. As the name suggests, these are just update messages and hence only the recent path changes are sent in these messages and not the whole routing table. To keep the links updated, empty HELLO packets are sent at periodic intervals only if no other update messages need to be sent. These empty HELLO packets are not required to be acknowledged speci cally. Source-Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) [19]. STAR is an ef cient link state protocol. Each node maintains a source tree which contains preferred links to all possible destinations. Nearby soure trees exchange information to maintain up-todate tables. A route selection algorithm is executed based on the propagated topology information to the neighbors. The routes are maintained in a routing table containing entries for the destination node and the next hop neighbor. In this protocol, link state update (LSU) messages are used to update changes of the routes in the source trees. Since these packets do not experience timeout, no periodic messages are required. STAR protocol provides two distinct approaches: optimum routing (ORA) and least overhead routing (LORA). The ORA approach obtains the shortest path to the destination while LORA minimizes the packet overhead. STAR also requires a neighbor protocol to make sure that each node is aware of its active neighbors. The STAR protocol has been further developed as SOAR [20]. 5.4.3 Hybrid Protocols Hybrid routing schemes combine the power of on-demand and table-driven routing protocols. Static routing is generally used at the fringes of the network where route changes are not frequent while in the core of the network on-demand routing has more signi cance. These schemes create a bridge between the two major types of routing protocols, and the overall performance obtained can be further improved. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) [21]. ZRP is a well-known hybrid routing protocol that is most suitable for large-scale networks. Its name is derived from the use of zones that de ne the transmission radius for every participating node. This protocol uses a proactive mechanism of node discovery within a node s immediate neighborhood, while interzone communication is carried out by using reactive approaches. ZRP utilizes the fact that node communication in ad hoc networks is mostly localized, thus the changes in the node topology within the vicinity of a node are of primary importance. ZRP makes use of this characteristic to de ne a framework for node communication with other existing protocols. Local neighborhoods, called
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