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Figure 5.2. (a) Reverse path formation. (b) Forward path formation [5].
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A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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path and store the forward route entry in their route table by the use of symmetric links. Route maintenance is required if either the source or the intermediate node moves away. If a source node becomes unreachable, it simply reinitiates the route discovery process. If an intermediate node moves, it sends a link failure noti cation message to each of its upstream neighbors to ensure the deletion of that particular part of the route. Once the message reaches to source node, it then reinitiates the route discovery process. Local movements do not have global effects, as was the case in DSDV. The stale routes are discarded; as a result, no additional route maintenance is required. AODV has a route aging mechanism; however, it does not nd out how long a link might be alive for routing purposes. The latency is minimized due to avoidance of using multiple routes. Integration of multicast routing makes AODV different from other routing protocols. AODV combines unicast, multicast, and broadcast communications; currently, it uses only symmetric links between neighboring nodes. AODV provides both a route table for unicast routes and a multicast route table for multicast routes. The route table stores the destination and next-hop IP addresses and destination sequence number. Destination sequence numbers are used to ensure that all routes are loop free, and the most current route information is used whenever route discovery is executed. In multicast communications, each multicast group has its own sequence number that is maintained by the multicast group leader. AODV deletes invalid routes by the use of a special route error message called Route Error (RERR).
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Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) [7]. TORA is adaptive and scalable routing algorithm based on the concept of link reversal. It nds multiple routes from source to destination in a highly dynamic mobile networking environment. An important design concept of TORA is that control messages are localized to a small set of nodes nearby a topological change. Nodes maintain routing information about their immediate one-hop neighbors. The protocol has three basic functions: route creation, route maintenance, and route erasure. Nodes use a height metric to establish a directed cyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination during the route creation and route maintenance phases. The link can be either an upstream or downstream based on the relative height metric of the adjacent nodes. TORA s metric contains ve elements: the unique node ID, logical time of a link failure, the unique ID of a node that de ned the new reference level, a re ection indicator bit, and a propagation ordering parameter. Establishment of DAG resembles the query/reply process discussed in Lightweight Mobile Routing (LMR) [8]. Route maintenance is necessary when any of the links in DAG is broken. Figure 5.3 denotes the control ow for the route maintenance in TORA. The main strength of the protocol is the way it handles the link failures. TORA s reaction to link failures is optimistic that it will reverse the links to re-position the DAG for searching an alternate path. Effectively, each link reversal sequence searches for alternative routes to the destination. This search mechanism generally requires a single-pass of the distributed algorithm since the routing tables are modi ed simultaneously during the outward phase of the search mechanism. Other routing
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AD HOC NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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Node i loses its last downstream link
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Was the link lost due to a failure
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Case 1: Generate new reference level
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Do all the neighbors have the same reference level
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Is the reflection bit (r) in the reference level set to 1
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Case 2: Propagate the highest neighbor s reference level
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Did this node originally define that reference level (oid =1)
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Case 3: Reflect back a higher level
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Case 4: Partition detected, erase invalid routes.
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Case 5: Generate new reference level
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Figure 5.3. Flow diagram of route maintenance in TORA [9].
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algorithms such as LMR uses two-pass whereas both DSR and AODV use threepass procedure. TORA achieves its single-pass procedure with the assumption that all the nodes have synchronized clocks (via GPS) to create a temporal order of topological change of events. The height metric is dependent on the logical time of a link failure. Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) [10]. ABR uses the property of associativity to decide on which route to choose. In this algorithm, route stability is the most important factor in selecting a route. Routes are discovered by broadcasting a broadcast query request packet; with the assistance of these packets, the destination becomes aware of all possible routes between itself and the source. Based on these available routes, a path is selected using the associativity property of these routes. The ABR algorithm maintains a degree of associativity by using a mechanism called associativity ticks. According to this, each node in the network maintains a tick value for each of its neighbors. Every periodic link layer HELLO message increases the tick value by one each time it is received from a neighbor. Once the tick value
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