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Automotive/PC Interaction. The interaction between many wireless devices (laptop, PDA, and so on) being used in the car for different purposes can create an ad hoc network in order to carry out tasks more ef ciently. An example can be nding the best possible mechanic shop to x a car problem in a new city on the way to a meeting. Personal Area Networks and Bluetooth. A Personal Area Network (PAN) creates a network with many of the devices that are attached or carried by a single user. Even though the communication of devices within PAN does not concern mobility issues, the mobility becomes essential when different PANs need to interact with each other. Ad hoc networks provide exible solutions for interPAN communications. For instance, Bluetooth provides a wireless technology built-in to many of the current PDAs; and up to eight PDAs, called piconet, can exchange information.
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5.3 DESIGN ISSUES The main reasoning behind the design of mobile ad hoc networks was to respond to the military needs for battle eld survivability [1]. The situations in the battle eld require soldiers to move from place to place without any constraints by wireline communications and communicate with each other without depending on any xed infrastructure. Since it is almost impossible to have a xed backbone network in certain territories such as desert, timely deployment of mobile nodes communicating via wireless medium becomes critical. Another deciding point is the consideration of the physics of electromagnetic propagation. The fact is that frequencies much higher than 100 MHz are limited by their propagation distance. Therefore, for a mobile host to communicate with another mobile host beyond its transmission range, multihop routing protocols become necessary. This means that messages are transferred from one host to another via other intermediate hosts. Mobile ad hoc networks inherit all the issues/problems related to mobile computing and wireless networking and perhaps even more due to lack of infrastructure in these types of networks. There are several unique design challenges that need to be considered, including deployment, coverage, connectivity, and so on. Deployment. Deployment of such networks are accomplished dynamically on the y, and the lifetime of these networks are usually short-lived. The deployment of ad hoc networks simply eliminates the cost of laying cables and maintenance of an infrastructure. In order to have a partially functioning network immediately, an incremental deployment with minimal con guration is possible. The requirements vary between different types of deployments such as commercial, military, emergency-operations, and so on. Coverage. Adequate coverage of the entire area in question has to be provided to enable effective communication within devices which may not be within direct transmission ranges of each other. In many cases, the coverage area is
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A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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determined by the particular deployed application. For example, in the home networking example, some of the nodes can be xed static entities while others are mobile. Connectivity. Another unique feature of ad hoc networking is the lack of connectivity due to mobility. Because the nodes can move at all times, the connectivity graph is continually changing. If all these nodes lie within the transmission range of each other, the network is said to be fully connected, which results in a complete graph [3]. Since this situation does not generally hold in practice, routing is needed between any two nodes which are connected directly. The only way to connect any two nodes farther apart is via the intermediary nodes between them, which create the need for multihop routing. Ad hoc networks cannot precompute a static routing table; rather, they must dynamically adjust routing based on the mobility of the nodes. Due to the mobility and dynamic topology changes, the protocols are designed to keep the network structure stable as long as possible.
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5.4 AD HOC NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS There have been many existing routing protocols for ad hoc networks emphasizing different implementation scenarios. However, the basic goals have always been to devise a routing protocol that minimizes control overhead, packet loss ratio, and energy usage while maximizing the throughput. Because these types of network can be used in a variety of situations (disaster recovery, battle elds, conferences, and so on), they differ in terms of their requirements and complexities. The routing protocols in ad hoc networks can hence be divided into ve categories based on their underlying architectural framework as follows and are shown in Figure 5.1. r r r r r Source-initiated (reactive or on-demand), Section 5.4.1 Table-driven (proactive), Section 5.4.2 Hybrid, Section 5.4.3 Location-aware (geographical), Section 5.4.4 Multipath, Section 5.4.5
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5.4.1 Source-Initiated Protocols Source-initiated routing represents a class of routing protocols where the route is created only when the source requests a route to a destination. A route discovery procedure is invoked when the route is requested by the source and special route request packets are ooded to the network starting with the immediate neighbors. Once a route is formed or multiple routes are obtained to the destination, the route discovery process comes to an end. Route maintenance procedure maintains the active routes for the duration of their lifetimes.
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