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mechanisms of 802.11 (e.g., time synchronization and power savings) fail in a multi hop environment. The second research focus at the MAC layer is in con guring the parameters of the MAC protocol, such as inter frame spacings, initial values, evolution of the collision window, and so on. These values have been ne-tuned for common WLAN situations. Similar to the case of using 802.11 for long links, we can expect the default 802.11 values to be grossly different from optimal.
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15.7.2 Routing Protocols There are several issues yet to be resolved at the network layer. Perhaps the rst problem to be resolved (as it shapes the rest of the protocol stack) is the addressing mode in VANETs. While several addressing modes have been developed for MANETs, only xed address and geographical addressing seem to be good matches for VANET applications. Furthermore, some applications t a xed addressing model very well, while others require geographical addressing. Using both modes requires a mapping between these to fundamentally different modes of addressing. While, for MANETs, there exist scalable and ef cient location services [e.g., 59], their mobility assumptions do not apply to VANETs. The vast majority of MANET routing protocols have been designed for xed addressing modes. Furthermore, those protocols (implicitly) assume that the network is in quasi-equilibrium and only needs to repair a few links at the time. In contrast, in VANETs, the links are so dynamic that an on-demand protocol such as AODV would get the routes broken even before they are formed [54]. Thus, a new routing protocol capable of handling both a mixture of addressing modes and highly dynamic links should be developed. The new routing protocol will have to support position-based multicast (similar to geocasting), because many VANET applications require support for such a service. Finally, a host of QoS-related issues, from guarantees for delays to priorities and fairness, should receive support from the networking layer.
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15.7.3 Transport Protocols The role of the transport layer is to provide a comprehensive and complete set of services to the application layer. Surprisingly little work has been done in this area. This lack of contributions can be explained by the lack of a clear networking layer interface to the transport layer. In other words, it is unclear on what network layer services can the transport layer be designed. There are several services that traditionally are associated with the transport protocol. Multiplexing (for multiple application support) and preserving the order of the packets should pose no special dif culties given port-like and sequence numbers similar to TCP. However, reliability is far more dif cult to implement. Especially for geographical multicasting applications, where the number and identity of the
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recipients is not known at the time a packet is sent, it may be very well impossible to ensure that all the vehicles in the ZOR received the packet. Similarly, we believe that it will be very dif cult (if not impossible) to provide delivery guarantees given the highly dynamic and unreliable lower layers. Congestion control is a particularly useful service that can be implemented either at the network or at the transport layer. It is well-known that a network may perform extremely poorly in the absence of a congestion control mechanism. The problem of congestion control in wireless networks is especially dif cult. Most congestion control mechanisms (e.g., the one in TCP, or the ones designed for ATM-ABR) have been designed with the assumption of a chain of links and routers (or switches) stretching between two end systems. In multihop wireless networks, there are no proper links, because each wireless transmission does not affect the congestion only at its intended receiver but to all nearby receivers as well. Therefore, an appropriate congestion control mechanism should monitor and react to congestion not only on the path taken by the packets, but also around it. The problem is considerably more dif cult for multicast applications.
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15.7.4 Security Architecture It is clear that in the Internet security was an afterthought. The initial network design (despite being funded by DARPA!) was focused on practical issues, from correctness to ef ciency. After all the technical challenges (e.g., addressing, ef cient routing, reliable transport, congestion control) have been solved and after the network succeeded commercially, the issue of security arose. Numerous stop-gap measures for various security aspects have since been developed. However, all the current activity and media attention point to the shortcomings of the current solution (after all, how much coverage did routing get in the media lately ). In contrast, since VANET protocols are in their nascent phase, it should be much easier to incorporate strong security mechanisms into their core. Ideally, security will be a non-issue by the time VANETs become a commercial success. The security architecture will have to walk the ne line between security and privacy. On one hand, consumers are often extremely concerned with privacy issues, and these issues can easily prevent a mass adoption of the technology. On the other hand, security issues and the associated liability are the main concern of the companies commercializing the technology. Further complicating the matter, several layers of back doors should be accessible by law-enforcement agencies. We believe that, at this early stage in the development of VANETs, a comprehensive and exible security architecture providing a complete set of services is a very worthy goal. Finally, there is a long list of nontechnical issues related to security aspects in VANETs for example, how to enforce a recommended (or optimal) speed, whether to penalize a narrowly avoided accident, or who can track who s vehicle under what conditions.
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