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Figure 2.15. Clustering in a ZigBee network.
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employing an overlay formed by border nodes and cluster heads (which act as beacons). Shortest paths can be computed using the designator device (DD), which can then distribute them to the entire network. This is a challenging research area, and efforts are ongoing. Ef cient Broadcasting in ZigBee Networks. In a ZigBee network, message broadcasting happens frequently. In order to minimize the transmission power and the processing involved in broadcasting, it is desirable that when a node has a message to broadcast, it is broadcasted to a particular subset of its neighbors and not to all its neighbors. Ding et al. [26] introduce an ef cient message broadcast algorithm. The algorithm is based on the fact that in a ZigBee network, during network formation, nodes are assigned addresses by the coordinator device. The addresses are distributed hierarchically. In this case, it is possible for every device to know the address of its parent, the address space of the child nodes of its parent, and the address of its parents neighbors. In the broadcasting protocol that is developed in Ding et al. [26], a device exploits the hierarchical addresses of its neighbors and their link qualities and makes a decision on whether to forward a broadcast message or not. As explained in Ding et al. [26], this is because the message broadcasting may have already been performed by the node s neighbors and a subsequennt broadcasting by the node may be redundant. This proposal may be possibly further elaborated for implementing a data broadcasting algorithm for ZigBee networks. Localization in ZigBee Networks. Methodologies for determining the location of nodes in a wireless ad hoc/sensor network based on time of arrival (TOA), angle of arrival (AOA), and received-signal-strength (RSS) can be found in Patwari et al. [27]. Since ZigBee networks are using the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer speci cation, the received signal strength (RSS) may be the most appropriate for location estimation. It can be measured via the link quality indicator (LQI), which reports the signal strength associated with a received packet to higher layers. Measurements are relatively simple to implement in hardware, and all commercial transceiver chipsets have an RSS indicator incorporated. However, such measurements may become very inaccurate. Major sources of error may be due to multipath signal arrivals and shadowing due to environmental factors. Errors to multipath signal arrivals can lead to frequency-selective shadowing, which in turn can be diminished by using spread spectrum transmission methodologies. Environmental shadowing (due to obstacles, etc.), however, may be very dif cult to combat. Further sources of error may be due to the fact that the RSS functionality may vary from chip to chip because of manufacturing tolerances or because of the battery level changes that the nodes may encounter during their life. Calibration and synchronization procedures for RSS in these cases are proposed in Patwari et al. [27] and references therein. 2.5.2 The Micrelnet Network Architecture The RadioWire MicrelNet is an ad hoc network architecture developed and offered by [21]. The architecture employs the company s transceiver chipsets. The architecture
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Figure 2.16. Structure of MicrelNet.
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can implement a multilevel star-based topology. The MicrelNet architecture involves wireless nodes that can be one of the following types: central master, master, and slave. The network is shown in Figure 2.16. Micrelnet has a tree structure. The central master is the root. Therefore, there is one central muster in a network. A master at level i (as well as the central master) can exchange information with a master at level i 1, and it can connect to at most two masters at level i + 1. Slaves can connect to any master at any level and can exchange information only with it. According to Micrel [21] the architecture currently supports up to eight levels (i = 1, . . . , 8). Addressing and Routing in MicrelNet. Addressing in MicrelNet is hierarchic. Routing is done following the hierarchy of the address space. Every node has a four-byte address programmed by a network administrator. The rst byte refers to the network level to which the node belongs. At network level n, the n most signi cant bits of bytes two, three, and four are used for specifying a master address. The remaining bytes are all zeroes for a master. An example of addressing in MicrelNet is depicted in Figure 2.17. The gure shows two masters that are placed in level 3. Their level is indicated in the rst byte. The addresses of these masters are speci ed by the three most signi cant bits of the second byte. The addresses in equivalent decimal notation are 3.192.0.0 and 3.224.0.0. A slave will have an address whose rst two bytes will be the same with the corresponding two bytes in the address of its master. The last two bytes will contain the id of the slave node. Since the n most signi cant bits of the second byte denote the address of a master, the network may have at most eight levels. At any level a master node can have at most 216 2 slaves
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