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Direct Normal Radiation. This is the amount of solar radiation received directly from the sun at the measurement point within a eld of view centered on the sun. Diffuse Horizontal Radiation, (Dh ). This is the level of solar radiation received from the sky (excluding the solar disk) on a horizontal surface. The conversion models attempt to translate the above readings into the actual total solar energy impinging on a tilted plane solar panel. This is done by de ning various solar angles that are used in the conversion. In addition to the solar radiation intensity, the angle of incidence determines the energy received by the panel, which is a function of the time of day and the day of the year. There are several methodologies available in the literature; some are based on the assumptions that the diffuse radiation is measured by the weather station, while others assume that it is not. References 9 and 12 provide methodologies that can be used to develop a simulator. In reference 9 the following methodology is described; in this case the data elds available are assumed to be available from US and Canadian weather stations and the diffuse horizontal radiation is available. In the rst phase, the direct component is estimated based on the zenith angle and the tilt angle of the plane and the hour angle and solar declination angle. The sky clearness is then estimated and discretized based on the Perez equations 13, which depend on the zenith angle, the direct component, and the horizontal diffuse radiation. Next, the sky brightness is estimated using the procedure in reference 13. Finally the diffuse component on a tilted plane is calculated based on the Perez equations. In addition to the above computations, it is important to make adjustments for temperature effects, inaccuracies in measurements, and losses in the electrical control circuitry. 12.7 EXERCISES 1. In the text it was stated that one criterion for choosing the battery and panel size is minimum cost. Can you suggest other criteria What is the effect of varying the cost model 2. In the solar panel size versus battery capacity graphs, discuss the values of the asymptotes of these curves; that is, What happens when the solar panel or battery becomes very large 3. If you were designing a controller to prevent node outages and also to minimize the energy withheld from the node, what would be the control variable Develop a theoretical framework for the time evolution of the system. 4. What modi cations would you need to incorporate into the analysis if you were considering other sources of energy For example, if you were incorporating a wind turbine into the system, what would be the effect on the required battery and panel sizes 5. Discuss other possible criteria for updating the moveable boundary de ned for the best-effort traf c case. Design a media access control protocol that achieves the same effect as the proposed mechanism.
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6. In the text we assumed an Erlang B model with discrete channel capacity. Can you think of any re nements to this model What would happen if the mesh MAC was contention-based
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REFERENCES
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1. The SolarMESH Network. http://owl.mcmaster.ca/ todd/SolarMESH/, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada., 2004. 2. F. M. Sa e. Probabilistic modeling of solar power systems. In Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 1989. Proceedings, Annual, 1989, pp. 425 430. 3. L. Narvarte and E. Lorenzo. On the usefulness of stand-alone PV sizing methods. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 8:391 409, 2000. 4. National Solar Radiation Data Base. http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), U.S. Department of Energy, 2004. 5. National Climate Data and Information Archive. http://www.climate.weatherof ce. ec.gc.ca/, The Meteorological Service of Canada, 2004. 6. Y. Li, T. D. Todd, and D. Zhao. Access point power saving in solar/battery powered IEEE 802.11 ESS mesh networks. In The Second International Conference on Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wired/Wireless Networks (QShine), August 2005. 7. F. Zhang, T. D. Todd, D. Zhao, and V. Kezys. Power saving access points for IEEE 802.11 Wireless network infrastructure. In IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference 2004, WCNC 2004, March 2004. 8. IEEE Standards Department. Part 11: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Laye r (PHY) Speci cations: Medium Access Control (MAC) Quality of Service (QoS) Enhancements, IEEE Press, New York, 2005. 9. A. Farbod. Design and resource allocation for solar-powered ESS mesh networks. M.S. thesis, McMaster University, West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, August 2005. 10. Y. Chung, J. Kim, and C.-C. J. Kuo. Network friendly video streaming via adaptive LMS bandwidth control. In International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering, and Instrumentation, San Diego, CA, July 1998. 11. T. Todd and A. Kholaif. WLAN VoIP capacity using an adaptive voice packetization server. In Internal technical Report-Wireless Networking Lab, McMaster University, 2006. 12. M. Shahidehpour, M. Marwali, and M. Daneshdoost. Probabilistic production costing for photovoltaic-utility systems with battery storage. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 12(2):175 180, 1997. 13. R. Perez, P. Ineichen, R. Seals, J. Michalsky, and R. Stewart. Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance. Solar Energy, vol. 44:271 289, 1990.
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